I am writing this during the spread of the ‘Corona virus – Corvid 19’ in Australia, and observing the hysteria and panic buying, reminds me of why I started learning about herbs and self-sufficiency in the first place, what will you do when these things happen?

Any form of natural disaster, or break down in the system can possibly cause massive shortages in supplies of food, water and energies.

But worst of all, what about medical supplies:

How will you survive without your medications!?

Now the purpose of this is certainly not to cause undue worry and serious concern, but to encourage us into some preparedness. The purpose is to get us all to start thinking, hmmm, it would be a good idea to start moving in this direction.

Anyway, let’s chat about our main subject today.

Purslane is an annual herb, that is a native to Australia, (nobody really knows its exact origin, some say from Greece to China), as it has been around for such a long time now, but is found in temperate regions all around the world.

Its botanical name comes from the Latin potare, which means to “carry,” and lac or “milk,” the milky like sap of the plant, which may be why so many believe it helps with lactation.

Purslane or as it is sometimes ungraciously called, ‘Pigweed” has been used as a food for thousands of years, as it was eaten by the Indians and Persians (Iran) in the Middle East, and it was used as a green to go into salads in the Mediterranean, and was probably carried into Europe through Spain due to the Saracens in the Middle Ages.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1st, it was first recorded to have been planted in England in 1582, and it was used as a common garden vegetable.

It was even used as a treatment for scurvy on the high seas, due to its very high Vitamin C content.

The Australian aborigines use to make a flour out of the seeds, which have the highest known source of omega-3 fatty acids* from a plant. (*Alpha linolenic acid).

They collected the seed simply by heaping the plants up side down on a smooth flat surface and allowing the seed to fall out, and found it easy to gather up.

The Australian aborigines really had an excellent, healthy and very nutritious diet, and this can be easily proven by observing the very old photos of fit and active men and women, with full sets of teeth and practically no disease to be found anywhere. We could and should learn a lot from these people.

The African Zulu used a variety called Portulaca quadrifida as an emetic.

It grows as a thick matting on the ground, but can grow up to 20cm / 8″ tall, as the branches and flowers try to reach upward towards the sun. Its leaves are generally light to dark green with green to reddish stems. Common Purslane has 2 to 3cm / 1″ long leaves, which form in clusters at the stem nodes with small yellow flowers. The seeds appear after the flowers drop off, and are black in colour and are the size of fine sand.

There are varieties that produce a whole range of bright colours and these don’t seem to be as invasive as the common Purslane, so can be used in gardens.

The Weed File

There are two other types of Purslane worth considering, and they are Golden Purslane – Portulaca oleracea var. (Sativa) and the Jade Plant – Portulacaria afra, sometimes called Elephant Food or Spekboom.

Golden Purslane is an upright (45cm / 18″) annual that has obovate fleshy yellow to lime coloured green leaves that are about 4cm / 1.5″ long. On the whole it is bigger the common Purslane in both leaf and plant size.

Jade plant is a hardy perennial, which grows much taller than both other varieties, up to 60 to 150cm / 2′ to 5′ tall. It is great for pots and other containers, as well as rock and dry gardens.

It is happy in either full sun or partial shade, and it also has succulent obovate leaves that are 1cm / 3/8″ long with red to brown stems.

My very own Jade plant, sitting in a marine/boat/macerating toilet

Also there is a Yellow Purslane – Portulaca lutea var. Soland, which can be found in New Zealand.


How To Use Purslane

There are two main ways to use Purslane, and they are cooking and as a medicinal herb. Sadly, many people just don’t know either, all they can do is complain about some ‘weed’ in their garden or lawn and spray it with something which would harm them more then help them.

In a era of anything made with Kale, has to be good, we completely over look good ole Purslane. But all you need to do is go out and pick a handful of bright green leaves and cast them into your salad bowl with other greens etc., and voila, there you have an interesting green salad, full of nutrition.

Medicinally, it is extremely high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are very necessary for good health and especially heart and nerve health, which we all need to be aware of. Topically, it can be used on insect bites and burns, plus, sore, irritable, and inflamed skin, such as eczema for example.

Those with gout shouldn’t not eat it raw, due to its oxalic acid, but used as a poultice externally has benefits.

Herbal Teas

Purslane tea itself was once drunk as a tonic for the whole body.

Simple Purslane Tea

Being easy and simple to make, plus the benefits of its nutrition, why not have a try at making Purslane tea.

To make Purslane tea, just grab a small amount of the leaves and stems, (younger leaves are better) place them into a cup, pour in boiling hot water, allow it to steep for about 15 minutes, and drink.

You can add a little sweetener such as raw honey, or stevia if needed.

Customised Purslane Teas

Some say it has a lemony or acidic flavour, which could mean adding lemon or lime juice or herbally you could try lemon balm, or lemon grass, which could make things interesting. But don’t let yourself stop there, why not add Chamomile or Peppermint with a bit of Ginger.

So why not develop your own personal favourite?

Culinary Uses of Purslane

When picking Purslane for cooking, it is best to pick all the young and tender leaves as these are nicer than the older ones, and the best time for picking is before the flowers come on. Some actually use the flowers in salads and meals too.

So if you want to experiment with Purslane, just think of where and how you could use a green vegetable, like spinach? And most likely you have an answer, for example, any type of salad, stir-frys, coleslaw, steamed veggies, juice drinks and smoothies, soups e.g. sorrel soup, stews and broths, casseroles, dumplings, any egg dishes, and omelettes, pancakes, fritters, and you can even pickle it with apple cider vinegar.

A few more specific uses could be steaming the young shoots and serving them up in a buttery sauce with a little salt and pepper, mixing the leaves in a sandwich with cream cheese or an egg and Purslane sandwich.

Purslane is one of the traditional ingredients of the French soup called Bonne femme, and in the Middle Eastern salad called Fattoush.

Before I got married, I use to work on a farm growing various fruits and vegetables and the farmer described one day how he use to eat Pigweed soup, when growing up as a child, and I was quite surprised, as at that stage I only of thought Purslane as a ‘weed’.

Yes, Pigs love Pigweed too!

PigWeed Soup

Ingredients

  • 1 heaped cup of Purslane, chopped
  • 1 large potato finely chopped
  • 1 large onion chopped
  • 6 cups of stock, usually chicken
  • Salt and pepper for taste
  • 1 cup of milk
  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup of cream (optional)

Method

  • Place all ingredients into a suitable saucepan except for the milk and cream
  • Place it in low simmering water for five minutes
  • Take off the heat and use a stick blender (or similar) to blend until smooth with no lumps
  • Just before serving, reheat and now you can add the milk and cream
  • Serve and enjoy

Health Uses of Purslane

There are two minerals that men and women generally need and that is zinc for men and iron for women, and Purslane is quite high in iron assisting them in this nutritional requirement.

It is also high in other minerals such as, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and lithium, and Vitamins such as, A – via its betacarotene, Bs such as folate, C and E, and being so rich in so many goodies makes it a wonderful tonic for the whole body. And I have found that most of humanity is deficient in magnesium.

As mentioned above it is high in Vitamin C, so if you cannot get a hold of Vitamin C, then eat plenty of Purslane.

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Purslane or Ma Chi Xian – 馬齒莧 or what Chinese practitioners would call the “vegetable for long life.” and what an amazing title for what most people want to kill.

From the TCM view point, it is classified as sour and cold in treatment and is used for the organ meridians of liver, heart and large intestine.

Its actions include: Clearing heat, cools the blood, plus, clearing damp heat of skin disorders, and they use it for swelling and pain of insect and snake bites, amongst many other indications.

Purslane Health Recipes

Poultice for Inflamed Breasts

This is made by mixing an oil such as a little coconut oil, a raw egg and Purslane. Place all the ingredients into a blender, and blend until you have a thick paste, and apply thickly and cold to reduce inflammation. This poultice can be left on for several hours or overnight.

Inflammation of the Urethra

Make a decoction by bringing to a boil and then simmering low for a few minutes, 60 grams of Purslane, 6 grams of Liquorice root and a cup water. Allow to cool slightly, strain and drink.

It can be turned into a mouth wash and gargled for any infections in the mouth. For coughs and shortness of breath, crush out the juice and mix it with a little honey, and gargle.

Those with reflux can eat Purslane to assist with alleviating stomach acid issues.

Gardening Uses of Purslane

Because Purslane is frankly one of the easiest things to grow, it is a great plant for those who want a pretty garden with colour and greenery, but just don’t want to put in the effort, like no effort. There is quite a range of varieties that produce many different bright colours, sizes and shapes. Plus, it doesn’t just flower for a short period and then disappear, but stays around for quite some time, providing lots of colour.

This simplicity makes it great for rock gardens, and for example, just stick it into those gaps and holes in between the rocks or logs if you want and let it grow with splashes of colour coming out for you to enjoy.

It also makes a excellent ground cover, thickly growing up and over whatever is near, but not over very large objects, which is another reason to grow it as a ground cover or in rockeries to fill in gaps.

Other Uses of Purslane

Grazing stock just love the stuff, and if you have any in the paddock they will find it and it will be gone, so encouraging it to grow out in the meadows for animals to eat is a good thing, as it is quite nutritious for them.


How to Grow Purslane

Purslane is just so simply to grow, and probably the best plan to grow it is to neglect it, and you’ll find that you can love it to death. But if you must, a little organic composting or fertilising (nitrogen) will give you thicker and more succulent leaves.

From Seed

The black seeds of Purslane are quite small and can lay dormant for up to seven years or more, so even if it dies down, and disappears, it may just as easily pop up next year. Each plant can produce thousands more of its own kind.

The best season to plant Purslane is in early spring, or once there are no more frosts, but if you are in tropical regions then you would be best to plant in Autumn.

Simply spread out the seed into a seed container filled with equal parts of sand and potting mix, and lightly water in. In a short while you should have germination, and just transplant these into pots, to get established and harden up a bit, then plant them into your garden etc. They should be ready to harvest in about 6 to 8 weeks.

From Leaves

You can propagate Purslane directly from the leaves, like most succulents, but it can be a bit of a ‘hit and miss’ affair. Just carefully break off whole leaves from the variety you want, and place these onto the soil/seed raising mix and just keep the soil slightly damp. Eventually, it will put down roots and grow.

From Cuttings

From about the middle of spring, take your cuttings of about 5cm / 2″ long, remove any bottom leaves, and place these into a sandy potting mix, keeping the mix slightly damp and warmish. Keep the container out of direct sunlight, and once growing roots, you can transplant these out into your pots or garden.

From Layering

Purslane as it spreads out and touches the ground will put down roots all on its own, and from these, you are able to propagate more plants, just follow what you would do if you were normally transplanting, and water in.

Maintenance

Purslane, is one of the most easiest plants to grow, in fact, if you just leave it alone, it will just keep coming back, this is why so many people consider it, dare I say, a ‘weed’. So neglect is the order of the day, as it grows in both sun and partial shade, in any soil type, and you can forget fertilising it and can often have no water given to it for ages.

Probably the only thing to be concerned about is the fact that it can spread quite easily, I guess this is why most people consider it a weed, as it can be propagated by both seed and its leaves, so if you bump it and some of the leaves fall off, most likely the plant will regrow.

So, I have not bothered with adding my usual extras on pests and diseases, soil and fertilisers etc., and apart from the occasional slug, as it just doesn’t matter.

If you really want to keep it under control due to its ability to spread, then just eat it, don’t poison it.


Collecting

When collecting it fresh, it is best to wait at least until the plant is about 10cm / 4″ wide, that way you can get enough for at least a salad or meal and it helps you not to strip the plant too much, then it should quickly recover supplying you with even more free food.

If you are harvesting for a future meal soon, then you can leave it with its whole stems, and keep them fresh in the fridge for a few days.

Always make sure that you only collect clean and healthy leaves and stems, free from damage, grubs and insects and their eggs and any other foreign matter and dust.

Drying

To dry Purslane you can do this in either an oven or a dehydrator keeping it at about 46C / 115F, but it is just as simple to dry it in the open air, say, on dry paper towelling or cloth towelling or on a tray of fine mesh. Just keep the leaves and stems apart so that they don’t come in contact with each other or you’ll need to move them around regularly to help them dry evenly and prevent mould.

Place your Purslane in a dry and airy room away from bugs and dust etc. They usually only take 2 to 3 days to dry, depending on your weather conditions. They will need to be dry, crispy and crunchy to touch and should have kept the basic shape, colour and flavour.

Once fully dried, it can be turned into a powder and put into a huge range of meals, teas and drinks, and although you don’t have to, it is better to turn it into powder just before using it as this holds in the goodness in slowing down oxidation.

Storage

Properly dried and stored Purslane can keep for 1 to 2 years. Always store your dried herbs in dark coloured glass jars or bottles, out of the sunlight and in a dark, cool dry place.

Fresh Purslane does not store well, due to its high water content, so you should use it fairly quickly, or you can store it in the fridge for a few days in the crisper.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Wild Purslane, Pig weed, Common Purslane, Pussley, Horse Coin, Horse Money, Green Purslane, Kitchen or Garden Purslane, Yellow Portulaca

Botanical Name:

Portulaca oleracea, P, sativa

Family:

Portulacaceae

Chinese Name:

Ma Chi Xian – 馬齒莧

Parts used:

Leaf, stems, juice (The entire plant is edible)

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 6.0 – 12.0 grams

Main actions:

Refrigerant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antibiotic, tonic, alterative, mild antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient, mucilage, and emmenagogue

Indications:

Headaches – nervous excitability, sore throat, sore gums, gingivitis, mouth wash, urethra pain, dry cough, muscular rheumatism, jaundice, gout – poultice, skin ulcers and sores. Plus, Dysentery, post partum bleeding, anti tumour, parasites, and promotes contraction of uterus

Constituents:

Extremely rich in n-3 fatty acids, Vitamin C, carotenoids, alkaloids, sitosterol, volatile oils, resin, galacturonic acid, tannins, lupeol, glycoside, sterols, oxalic, citric, malic and glutamic acids, dopamine, B – Amyrin, noradrenaline, sacchariferoid, and protein

Safety concerns:

Do not use during pregnancy. Those with rheumatism and gout should avoid raw Purslane.

Adulterants:

None known



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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“Our misunderstanding about ‘weeds’ is that we haven’t come to use them correctly, then they will cease to remain weeds”

Herbal Panda

Some of my own Purple Cone Flower

Wow, Miss Echinacea, that seems like funny name, up to four syllables I counted” questioned the little girl, whilst staring at her beautiful pink gown. “Well, my inquisitive little girl, I may have a funny name, but if people knew what I can do, they would be dancing in the streets” answered Miss Echinacea, “Really! So can I dance with you” squealed the girl, “Yes, lets dance” offered Miss Echinacea.

So where did Echinacea get its name, it comes from the Greek word, “Echinos” meaning hedgehog, referring to the centre of the flower, which becomes harder and dryer as the flower moves to maturing seed.

All Echinacea species are native to the North American prairies and woods, but these days it is just about grown anywhere with very little care.

I find the original discovery of the benefits of Echinacea very fascinating, let me tell you about it. Originally written by J.H. Henley MD.

“Many years ago American Indians observed that by tantalising the rattlesnake it would in its wrath bite itself. The creature was seen to become immediately restless and sought to retreat. On following the snake it was observed that it went straight to a certain shrub and there became a veritable ‘sucker’. When it finished sucking the plant it would seek a hole in which to hide, but not to die. It would recover. This led to the discovery of plant, Echinacea. It was from the medicine-men of the Mohawk and Cherokee Indians we obtained our first knowledge of this remarkable herbal remedy.”

From here the First Nation peoples used it for a range of ailments such as:

Infections, toothaches, many skin issues, sore throats, wounds and snake bite.

The Weed File

There are three main varieties of Echinacea that need to be considered, when using herbal remedies, and the two most common ones are Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea. They are very similar in appearance, but with a few differences:

Main Herbal varieties:

Echinacea angustifolia:

  • Grows to about 60 to 100cm / 2 to 3′ tall
  • Leaves have a smooth margin but are hairy and rough and lanceolate in shape

Echinacea purpurea:

  • Grows to about 1.5m / 5′ tall
  • Leaves are more ovate and wider with course margins

Both have the same looking flowers, which range from pink to purple, found on terminal stems.

Then there is the Pale purple coneflower.

Echinacea pallida:

  • Grows to about 60 to 100cm / 2 to 3′ tall
  • Flowers are generally more pale – pallida, have very thin and reflexed rays (drooping)
  • Leaves are also course and hairy, lanceolate and have no teeth

Of course, there are many other lesser known varieties with red, orange, yellow and white flowers, and here are a few.

  • Yellow coneflower – Echinacea paradoxa
  • Sanguine purple coneflower – Echinacea sanguinea
  • Topeka purple coneflower – Echinacea atrorubens
  • Narrow-leaved purple coneflower – Echinacea serotina
  • Tennessee coneflower – Echinacea tennesseensis
  • Wavyleaf purple coneflower – Echinacea simulata
  • smooth purple coneflower – Echinacea laevigata

How To Use Echinacea

The principle way of using Echinacea, is medicinally, and this is easy to prove just by typing the word into the search bar, and rightly so, because it really is a gift to mankind. But it can easily be added to cosmetics and various personal body care and hygiene products.

When one considers all the many and powerful benefits of Echinacea, you see the value of adding this to toothpastes, soaps, hand cleaners, shampoos, facial and shaving creams, make-up, lipstick, lip gloss and lip balms, body washes, moisturisers, and sunscreens.

Therefore, with a bit of experimentation, anyone can make their own medicating body care products and cosmetics.

So apart from the direct medicinal use in tinctures, syrups, lozenges, liniments and powders, the most popular use is making your own herbal tea.

Herbal Teas

This is one of the most easiest and simplest way to get Echinacea into you.

Sometimes when you drink Echinacea tea you will get a real tingling sensation in your mouth, this is only for a little while and is of no concern, in fact, it is actually a sign of good quality herb, but just be aware, some folks are allergic to the Asteraceae family.

Simple Echinacea Tea

The simplest for the home user, is to pick a couple fresh leaves and flower petals about 1 to 2 teaspoons worth, finely chop them up, put them into a cup, pour in boiling hot water, cover, and allow to steep for 5 minutes.

If necessary, add a little natural sweetener, as it can be a sort of bittersweet.

To jazz things up a bit or for the adventurous, you can add a little lemon juice or even apple cider vinegar, as this adds to the extraction process making to more efficacious.

If you make a tea from the dried root, you will need to simmer it for at least 5 to 10 minutes (longer is stronger) then add your sweetener.

Even though you can use the whole plant and all of it has health benefits, its the root which is the most powerful.

Customised Echinacea Teas

Many other herbs can be added to make it more interesting and flavoursome, but if you want to really add more power to your herbal tea, then adding some Golden seal will work amazingly, but with this one, I would sip it throughout the day, don’t just drink it in one go, it’ll have more affect.

It is rare, but sometimes people can have a nauseous feeling, and if you do, try adding some liquorice root with it as it seems to keep things calm.

Culinary Uses of Echinacea

Now this will probably be a short list of ideas, because really, the idea of using Echinacea in cooking isn’t very high on anybodies list.

Because you can buy Echinacea in powder form, you can make super healthy foods by adding this special ingredient. So, you could add the powder to pancakes, pikelets and fritters, blended into smoothies and juice drinks, sprinkled on the oatmeal or breakfast cereal. Also, for those who are a little more adventurous, you add it to your home made pasta or vegetable dishes. With the flower petals, add them to jams or jellies for interest, plus they could be used as decorations, floating on drinks and desserts. And finally you can juice the leaves and add that to juice shots.

Please let me know if you have heard of any culinary dishes using Echinacea in some way, as I would love to here from you.

Health Uses of Echinacea

When it comes to Echinacea, there isn’t much it can’t help you with, such that if you’re sick, just take echinacea, and at least something good should happen. No, its not a complete panacea, but I will tell you what, it is one of my back stops for many issues, as it will help in ways you may not have thought of.

The main reason for Echinacea’s great success, is that it is both immune stimulating and modulating, and this knowledge of it resisting infection has been known for over a hundred years by the west. So if you think about it, many problems we face in life come from bad diet, and bad ‘bugs’. And when it comes to especially bad bugs, Echinacea, can help with viruses, bacteria, fungi and even parasites.

So, if you keep thinking about it, how many conditions could involve these baddies.

In the world of herbs, quite often, slightly different varieties do contain different amounts of different constituents, therefore, taking just one variety may not actually be the best solution, unless you know that that variety is specific for that condition. Where it’s easy to come unstuck, is that most books just don’t tell you which variety is best for what, So an easy method to deal with this is simply to take a ‘blend’, that is, mixing together both E. angustifolia and E. purpurea. So, if you purchase some capsules for example, and you read that it has at least these two varieties, then you are generally safe.

A very simple tip on how to use Echinacea, is to slowly suck on or chew a small piece of the root (1 to 2grams) as it can have as much efficacy on your system as many of the fancy tinctures. (Remember the rattle snake story above?)

Indications for Echinacea

For a general list of suggestions for using Echinacea:

  • All infections: bacterial, viral and parasitic (topical and internal)
  • Skin disorders: wounds, boils, abscess and acne
  • Respiratory conditions: colds, flu, fever, pertussis, sinusitis, bronchial, tonsillitis
  • Gastrointestinal: diarrhoea, dysentery, IBS, ulcers, gingivitis, candidiasis
  • Urinary: cystitis, urethritis
  • Immune deficiency and post viral
  • Inflammation and also in the connective tissue
  • STD’s/STI’s
  • Reducing the effects of Chemotherapy

Areas of caution

One of its benefits is that it stimulates or boosts your immune system, and this is normally a very good thing, but, there are a few people who should completely avoid this herb, and these are especially those who are going to or have recently had an organ transplant. I would definitely speak to your health care professional if you have ever had a transplant, before taking this herb.

Also, if you do have a serious disorder such as, AIDS, HIV, MS, leukosis, auto-immune and collagenosis, for example, please speak to you health care professional, before taking Echinacea.

Oil of Echinacea

Although not as famous as many of the essential oils, Echinacea essential oil has basically the same benefits of the herb itself. Essential oils should always be applied topically and with a carrier oil, say Jojoba or coconut oils for example.

Gardening Uses of Echinacea

Echinacea is actually a very easy plant to grow. It is a plant suitable for borders or filling in small holes that can do with a splash of colour.

Some folks just don’t want a flowing green lawn but actually want more of a meadow, which actually can save water, fuel and time, so Echinacea can provide an interesting addition to your ‘field’.

It attracts butterflies, bees and other pollinators and some birds for either the nectar or the seed, and this is generally a good thing as a natural form a pest control.

Echinacea does have a fragrant flower that unless you have lots of them will not dominate the garden, and it flowers for about 3 months, depending on your climate.

Other Uses of Echinacea

The flowers are quite long lasting and therefore, can be used as cut and dried flowers to pop into your favourite vase.


How to Grow Echinacea

Echinacea is a herbaceous perennial that dies down in winter, but will spring back up in spring. I encourage every and anyone to grow their own, as people and especially companies find it of tremendous value that it may become endangered.

Echinacea is a very low maintenance plant, that is easy to grow, perfect for those who do not wish to be too busy in the garden, and it is good for those who do not have much water, or frankly forget to water, as it is suitable for drought or hot conditions, tolerates humidity and can grow in poor clay, dry, shallow or rocky soils.

Echinacea is also an excellent plant for putting into pots, and putting on your balcony, and if it’s cold, wet and damp, just bring it inside, as they don’t like being cold, wet and damp.

Echinacea does re-bloom, but does not drop its dead flowers, but with a quick snip of the secateurs will soon fix that.

From Seed

Echinacea does self seed, so once established in the garden, or even in a pot it will come back year after year. Or, you can collect the seeds and plant these in pots or spread them throughout the garden or meadow.

Although germination can be rather slow, it is definitely worth a try. Cold Stratifying the seed is highly advisable. So place the seed into moist sand and for about 3 to 4 weeks keep them at 0C / 32F, then take them out and wait for them to germinate. Once they start coming up and have at least four leaves, gently transplant them into bigger pots, and when ready, transplant them into much larger pots, at least 20cm / 8″ or into the garden.

Remember don’t over water them as they don’t like it.

From Division

Echinacea naturally forms clumps, and from these, you can create divisions and propagate from them. The biggest issue with division is that most varieties have tap roots, except E. purpurea, and most plants with tap roots just don’t do so well once it is damaged. So care needs to be taken.

So, if you do wish to propagate via division, every 4 years, and in spring, divide the clump as they do become overcrowded, this is especially so in pots, and it isn’t a bad idea in the garden as well.

Maintenance

Actually, Echinacea is a very low maintenance plant, easy for those lazy gardeners, who forget to water and fertilise, and don’t care for sprays and poisons, so if that’s you, here is your plant.

The only pruning that may want to do, but its not really necessary, is to remove the dead heads, as they don’t look real nice, but from these it does self seed. So if you want, you can either chop up the dead heads and leave them on the ground or collect the seeds and keep them for next year or just let them be.

Pest and Diseases

It is rarely affected by pests and diseases so don’t get too concerned, but, I have complied a list of possible baddies: Japanese beetle, vine weevils, leaf miners, slugs and snails, plus, powdery mildew, leaf spot, bacterial spots, grey mould, and a virus-like disease called ‘aster yellow’.

Soil and Fertiliser

Due to the tough hardiness of the plant, frankly you don’t need to fertilise much at all, but if you do, just give it a little organic fertiliser at the beginning of its growing season, as it seems to do better with neglect than good-loving.

Climate and water

Echinacea will just about grow in any climate, except for extremes such as wet and damp, and in most situations this is easily fixed by carefully placing the potted plant indoors or suitably designed structures.

Regular watering is fine, but don’t be excessive, and at times you can let it dry out some, remember it does naturally grow out in the prairies and woodlands, and we should copy its original habitat.


Collecting

The time of the year to pick the flowers and leaves is just as the flowers are starting to bloom, and before they are fully formed, or harvest the roots during full bloom.

Collect the seed after the flowers have died back, and then fully dry them out by cutting up the seed heads into smaller parts.

When harvesting the arial parts, always wait until the dew has dried off, checking for any damage, insects and their eggs and any foreign matter.

The roots are best collected from at least 4 year old plants, as this is when they are most medicinal.

Drying

To dry the leaves and the flower petals, spread them out on dry paper or dry towelling keeping the parts from touching each other, or at least keep turning them over keeping them well ventilated.

They should retain their colours and fragrances, but just be dry and brittle.

Storage

Store all dried components in dark coloured glass jars or bottles that seal air tight and kept out of sunlight. If there is no foreign matter, bugs etc., and everything is thoroughly dry, it should keep up to 1 to 2 years.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Cone flower, Black Sampson, Rudbeckia, E. purpurea (Purple cone flower), Missouri coneflower 

Botanical Name:

Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. pallida

Family:

Asteraceae

Parts used:

Root or aerial parts or whole plant

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 2.5 – 5.0 grams

Main actions:

Immune enhancing, immune modulating, antioxidant, prophylactic, depurative/alterative, lymphatic, anti-inflammatory, blood cleanser, detoxicant, vulnerary, sialogogue, antiseptic, deodorant, tonic, antibiotic, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiscrofulus, parasiticide/anthelmintic, vasodilator, diaphoretic, antiallergenic

Indications:

Acute infections: viral, bacterial, parasitic (all acute doses, chronic infections, swollen lymph glands, splenic enlargement, infection prevention, slows immunological ageing, upper an lower respiratory conditions: common cold, influenza, conjunctivitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngeal catarrh, infections otitis media, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchiectasis, acute bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pertussis, skin conditions: boils/ furunculosis, abscesses, ulcers and varicose ulcers, dermatitis, psoriasis, cellulitis, herpes, shingles, Gastrointestinal conditions: infection candidiasis, peptic ulcer dysentery, cholecystitis, infectious hepatitis, UTI’s: cystitis, urethritis, kidney infections, dental caries – prevention, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, mouth ulcers – liquid better, Systemic infections: glandular fever, Ross River virus, mastitis, measles, mumps, and insect stings.

Plus, Autoimmune disease (caution), adjunct to cancer therapy – chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphoma, promotes healing, venomous bites, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and post-viral syndromes

Constituents:

Flavonoids, alkaloids, essential oil, polysaccharides, inulin, Inuloid, alkylamides – isobutylamide – echinacein, phenolic acid derivatives – cichoric acid; echinocoside. Check for levels of alkylamide content, phyto-oestrogen, phytosterols, betaine, resin, vulose, sucrose, fatty acids, 

Safety concerns:

Much of the concerns brought up about Echinacea really don’t have any bases, but taking a few precautions, should greatly protect your well being.

  • Some people may be allergic to it, think ragweed or sunflowers
  • Immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplants

Adulterants:

Sometimes they are adulterated with another variety of the same species, or adulterated with Parthenium integrifolium.



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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A Herbal Glycerite is easier to make than most extractions and therefore can be done at home by anyone. You just need to follow one main rule, keep your glycerine content always about 60% or more.

So if you are considering purchasing some glycerine, there are actually quite a few other possible uses from your purchase other than herbal glycerite.

But what is a Herbal Glycerite?

Herbs are great, and as you would have guessed by now, I have a very high opinion of them, but at times, you don’t have instant access to them, that is, difficulty with storage, accessibility, time of harvest or season, and transport, for example. So often you need to make an extract out of the herb, and store it for a period of time for use later on, and also to increase the concentration of the herbs constituents for more efficacy.

Early in man’s history he used water, vinegar and wines to store and transport these herbal qualities, and later on, he used stronger alcohols and also he discovered glycerine.

Glycerine was found to be a reasonably good solvent and a preservative as well, this makes it a suitable menstruum for herbs.

Glycerine comes from fats and oils, which are basically the same thing, sort of, and can come from both animal and plant sources and both will work. A Swedish chemist by the name of Karl. W Scheele, first discovered this in 1779, and called it the “sweet principle of fat”. It was named Glycerin, from the Greek – glykys meaning sweet, in 1811 by a French guy, called Michel Chevreul.

A man by the name of T. E. Groves originally introduced Glycerine to the herbal scene in 1867, and it was a few years after that it began to be widely used for both herbal/medical and personal and cosmetic uses. And this really is just so natural, because glycerine is a natural by-product of making soap.

Being a Humectant, which is a substance the encourages the holding of moisture, they do this by attracting water molecules to itself. This is why it is often used in skin moisturises. But it is used in a huge range of products such as, toothpastes, shampoos, moisturisers, deodorants, and makeup.

Culinarily, it can be used to blend oil and water, sweeten and moisten foods, and prevent crystals from forming frozen foods. Plus, candles and a range of other medications.

I do believe that there is a place for herbal glycerites, but some push them for reasons that are not well established, such as, that being from a ‘fresh herb’ it has more vitality or energy, but this has not being well proven. Plus, there is a ‘concern’ with the appearance that often during the process of macerating, the naturally occurring enzymes in the plant are still functioning, and therefore actually breaking down the extracted juices before preservation.

During the late 1800’s a Guy by the name of Alfred Nobel discovered the ‘peacefulness’ of nitroglycerine and then demand for glycerine “Exploded!” This does not mean that using a Herbal Glycerite will cause your kids to blowup when they irritated you.

In the 1940’s they did develop a synthetic version of glycerine from propylene, which is a byproduct of petroleum.

It is also a by-product of biodiesel manufacture, I know, I have made biodiesel too.

Reasons why to make a Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine is a viscous and syrupy like liquid, that is both colourless and odourless with a sweet taste. It’s abilities to extract are in between water and alcohol. It isn’t the best menstruum for extraction processes, but it does have a few other advantages, one is the taste factor, meaning, that it is quite sweet, and therefore, gets around the child who won’t accept the “its good for you” argument.

Another is the problem with the alcohol, that is, some cannot take any amount or form of alcohol due to alcoholic sensitivities, possible allergic reactions, serious liver disorders and religious reasons. For example, if someone from the Islamic Community came to me and wanted a herbal remedy, but would not receive any tincture made from ethanol. This way, I can give help without offence, and also follow a major rule for alternative practitioners, “First do no Harm”.

If you want to remove the ‘alcohol’ from the alcoholic tincture, but aren’t so bothered by the fact that it was originally made from alcohol or the taste, you can remove it. This is done by a placing the specific dosage into a cup of water that has just recently been boiled. Allow this to stand for about five minutes, as this will cause the alcohol content to evaporate.

Although not the best menstruum for herbs in general, glycerine does work fine with a few herbs, which have the ‘water-soluble’ constituents you require, for example Marshmallow root.

A glycerite preparation can be designed to be used both internally and externally, and this increases their use and scope greatly.

Glycerites can be added to alcohol extracts to ameliorate its taste, and to add actives, and glycerine works well tannins.

Once you have made your glycerite, you can use them in recipes and formulas that can be part of creams, lotions, gels, cleansers and exfoliants. And glycerites do have an added ability to possess the aromas of the herbs being extracted. So this gives them a special natural advantage in making topical applications both medicinally and aroma-therapeutically.

Also, glycerites are great for using alternative medicine on animals, especially due to its taste internally or even topically.

Similar to a Succi, you can use it to preserve expressed herbal juices instead of alcohol, but it won’t have the shelf life of the grain alcohol, and you will need to keep the ratio at least 1:3, that is one part juice to 3 parts glycerine.

How to do a Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine is often readily available from chemists, supermarkets, sometimes hardware and even some farming suppliers, plus there are heaps of online suppliers too, so obtaining glycerine shouldn’t be a problem.

Always choose a organic, GMO free version, and ethically sourced to your preferences.

An important point when making glycerites is to try to be meticulously clean and hygienic, glycerine is not such a killer of bacteria as alcohol. So make sure your herbs are clean of any bugs, or other foreign matter, dust and soil, and manure etc.

Basic Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine and Water combination

  • Finely chop, grind 50g herbs and place in a suitable jar
  • Add 500ml glycerin
  • Add 340ml pure water
  • Give it a good shake to combine the glycerine and water and to cover all of the herbs
  • Replace the lid tightly and shake it every day for 2 weeks minimum, longer is better
  • Strain or filter out the herbs (this may be slow)
  • You can use a tincture press with cheese cloths or similar (faster)
  • If you are using powder, you will need fine filtering

Glycerine only

  1. Collect your herbs after the moisture has dried off
  2. Check for and remove any dirt, dust or foreign matter, such as insects and their eggs
  3. Finely chop or grind up the herbs being processed
  4. Fill a suitable jar to about 1/2 to 2/3 of jar with the herbs
  5. Completely cover the herbs and fill with 100% glycerine
  6. Make sure you glycerine is approximately at least two times the herb
  7. Put the lid on the jar and label the contents and shake the jar
  8. Allow to macerate for two to four weeks, shaking it daily (4 to 6 weeks is better)
  9. After 2 weeks, press it out using 2 or 3 layers of cheesecloth and tincture press
  10. You may need to go finer if you were using a powder
  11. Pour into a clean sterilised glass jar and label and date
  12. You can immediately use it, if needed

Dosage would be about 2/3 of a teaspoon, 3 times daily, can be taken in a little water.

On the whole, your herbal glycerite will have a shelf life if stored well, of about 1 to 2 years, and make sure you store out of the sunlight and in a cool dry place.

Choice of Herbs for a Herbal Glycerite

Two things that make a herb, a ‘better’ choice of herbs, is that they work best with fresh herbs, and the more water soluble the constituents are the better the choice of herb. That being said, you can honestly use either dry or fresh, or just about any herb, they just get a little more complicated. But start with an easy herb first.

A minor point here in Australia, but more important in colder countries, is to pick your fresh herbs in the spring and summer, to get the most ‘juiciest’ herbal parts, even picking shortly after rain can add to the water content. If they are very watery, then be careful, as too much water content can cause problems, particularly with preservation, and you may need to alter the formula.

By no means a complete list, but here are some herbs you could try:

German chamomile, Burdock, Calendula, Echinacea spp., Fennel, Ginger, Peppermint, Hawthorn berry, Mugwort, Elderberry flowers, Cleavers, Lavender, Bee balm, Lemon balm, Oregon grape root, Skullcap, Mullein leaves, Golden seal, Nettle, Oats, Plantain, Rose petals, Chaste tree, Turmeric, Valerian, and Yarrow.

Variations of a Herbal Glycerite

Apart from the possible variations of a huge range of herbal choices, and using them internally and externally, plus for cosmetic and culinary uses, you can also add essential oils to them. This is due to glycerine’s ability to solubilise them into the mix. Don’t use essential oils internally, only externally.

Although I have not tried it myself, you can actually make glycerites out of ordinary foods, such as fruits and vegetables, but you’ll need to pick fresh and high in water soluble constituents.

Safety

  • Always be aware of a allergic reaction to any new herb you try
  • If adding essential oils only use that glycerite ‘externally’
  • Some people do react against glycerine itself although it is generally considered safe.


Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in anyway. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

Name Logo

Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

HHAI Logo

“Sadly pain is long remembered, but a sweet is soon forgotten, plus, it rots your teeth”

Herbal Panda