Cleavers is a native to countries in Europe, North Africa, North America and also in Asia, but it is now found around the world, from Saskatchewan Canada to South Australia.

It grows in forests and other wooded areas, to fields and other cultivated crops, bush and shrubbery, gardens, to lawns and meadows.

The name Cleavers comes from the old English word, meaning “to cleave,” which means “to latch onto.” Not the other meaning of ‘to cleave’, meaning to separate or come apart.

The Greeks called it ‘philanthropon’, which means to ‘Love man’ as it has this spreading habit via clinging to people, as well as animals.

Pliny the Elder once suggested that “A pottage made of Cleavers, a little mutton and oatmeal is good to cause lankness and keepe from fatnesse.” he and the Roman physician Galen also understood its ability to prevent and treat oedema caused by water retention.

Due to its many hooked shaped hairs, which resembles velcro, and although the Greek physician Dioscorides had never heard of velcro, he also used it to curdle milk and filter. This tradition of filtering has been kept alive and is still used in countries such as Sweden, where people who milk cows would use the plant to strain out any animal hair, which may have fallen in during the milking process.

It was used by the Native American tribes to promote kidney health, and in China it has been used as an antiperspirant.

Some may not know it but, in the country of Turkey, it is called ‘yogurt otu’, meaning ‘yogurt herb’, this is because the plant literally contains an enzyme that can coagulate milk.

The Weed File

There are three main ‘cousins’ to Cleavers and they are: Sweet woodruff – Galium odoratum; Ladies’ bedstraw – Galium verum, and Madder – Rubia tinctorum.

Sweet woodruff: is a perennial plant that grows to an average height of 23cm with whorls of 6 to 8 shiny leaves and starry white flowers. Part used – leaves and flowers

Ladies’ bedstraw: (Yellow bedstraw or Our lady’s bedstraw) is similar to Sweet woodruff, but much more slender. It got its original name from its earlier use of ‘bedstraw’. Part used – leaves

Madder: is a perennial with more yellowy flowers, but is coarser and larger than Sweet woodruff, Parts used – roots


Another variety that some may know of is: the Three-horned bedstraw – Galium tricornutum. The South Australian and Western Australian governments consider this as serious weed problem.

In my own personal opinion, for all that it is worth, is if you have a serious problem with Cleavers, is to graze it out. As all the aerial parts are edible, therefore, one should rotate both their crops and grazing animals. It seems to be a specific issue in canola and therefore, we would need to make sure it is thoroughly eaten out before the seed has a chance to form and throwing in a few chickens or geese for good measure.

Most would say that I’m a nutter for suggesting this, but why couldn’t some folks literally carry several thousand chickens around in trucks going from farm to farm acting as weed cleaners and pest eradicators for farmers?


How To Use Cleavers

There are only a few culinary uses for Cleavers, but its principle use is medicinal. Which isn’t really a concern, as it is a fantastic herb to use medicinally.

Many of the common afflictions which humans suffer from, can either be helped greatly or even in some small way by adding it to a formula combined with other herbs.

We all face skin issues such as acne, dermatitis, dry skin, psoriasis and eczema throughout our lives, and this is one of its areas it excels in.

The other very important area in which Cleavers excels in, is the lymphatic system, and although this is related to many skin issues, it can help clean deeper into our bodies. This means it can clean our blood, help with swollen lymph nodes and infections, clearing them out of your system.

Herbal Teas

With most herbal teas, pouring in boiling hot water is usually just fine, but with Cleavers you should not use boiling hot water, just very warm, as it destroys some of its vital constituents. The infusion of Cleavers tea can be a beneficial wash for the skin, so if you want to have a more therapeutic infusion, it is even better to make a cold infusion.

Simple Cleavers Tea

To make a simple tea, place 1 teaspoon (or 2 teaspoons fresh) of dried Cleavers into a cup and pour in the very warm water, wait five minutes and drink.

Now how’s that for simple, being healthier just couldn’t be easier.

Customised Cleavers Teas

I don’t have too many recipes to offer here, but one that would work and especially with Urinary Tract Infections (UTI’s) would be to have equal parts of both Cleavers and Raspberry leaf, say, 1 heaped teaspoon of each, placed into a cup, pour in very warm water, not boiling, wait about 5 minutes and than add a sweetener, and enjoy.

Culinary Uses of Cleavers

There not many culinary uses for cleavers, mostly medicinal, but you can use it in green smoothies, as it does have a high chlorophyll content, which would also help with magnesium intake. In some places around the world, it is used as a ‘spring tonic’ because it cleanses the lymphatics and the blood.

The dried and roasted seed of Cleavers can be used as a coffee substitute.

Cleavers was consumed in China as a vegetable, probably steamed, as its the ‘furriness’ that throws most people off. Cooking it in some ways gets rid of the ‘fur’ and then could used in various dishes as a green vegetable.

Health Uses of Cleavers

Cleavers has been used now for many centuries as a folk medicine and most specifically for skin ailments.

Probably one of its most important benefits is that it helps to remove metabolic waste from your body. This is why it is called a ‘lymphatic’, meaning that it helps to move the lymph and the waste it carries along the lymphatic system, into the blood stream and ultimately out of the body.

That is why it is so good for skin conditions

Cleavers can be used in all sorts of herbal preparations, but the most effective method is to prepare a succus, that is, a well pressed fresh juice preserved in a little alcohol.

But another very useful method is to make a herbal oil, then after this process, it can be used in creams, ointments and salves, to treat the skin, or simply as a massage oil for dry skin.

Each herbal preparation tends to be more effective for different conditions, so when we come to other skin issues, such as, burns, blisters and open sores, or your skin has come in contact with a poisonous plant, then a poultice would be better.

To make a poultice for such, all you need to do is thoroughly mash up the leaves and stems into a thick pulp and layer it on fairly thickly. As its cooling affect will often soothe on its own let alone the medicinal benefits.

A specific formula for cleansing the blood is to use equal parts of Cleavers, Bladderwrack and Ground ivy.

Another for cystitis, is to use equal parts of Cleavers, Marshmallow and Iceland moss. This is prepared as a tea and drunk 3 times per day.

There is a homeopathic version too.

Gardening Uses of Cleavers

There really isn’t too many reasons for gardening with Cleavers, other than to use it as an addition to your herb garden, and then growing it for personal use. You could use it along a trellis as a shield, but personally I would use other more attractive plants for this.

One of the reasons it it called ‘goosegrass’, is that geese and as well as chickens, love the leaves and seed it produces. So you could grow it in the middle of the chicken run, (not on the outer edge) with a protective mesh around it just far enough away from the plant so the chickens or geese don’t over graze it.

Other Uses

Also, it can be used as a dried flowering plant or potpourri as it does have a fresh hay aroma to it.

Dyeing with Cleavers, Madders and Ladies’ bedstraw

If you make a strong decoction from the root, you can create a red dye, so much so, that it is said to even make your bones dyed red. Not sure what that would be useful for? You are best to wait at least 2 years before digging these up for dying purposes.


How to Grow Cleavers

Cleavers is a climbing or creeping annual that can grow to a height of approximately 1.2m / 4′ tall, and has small white to greenish white flowers. The lanceolate leaves form whorls of 6 to 9 leaves and fruits have small hairs that are hooked, helping to give it one of it’s names ‘Sticky willy’, thereby sticking to your clothes.

Due to its ability to spread so well and then grow up and over your favourite plants elsewhere, it is probably best to grow it in a large pot in a position that helps to prevent it spreading via dropping its seed and from people and animals passing by.

From Seed

Cleavers has very little trouble propagating from seed, and all that I would suggest here, is just follow basic plant propagating from seed procedures as common to growing from seed. The best time for attempting to grow from seed is about mid-spring.

The only other thing I would suggest specifically here, and what I mentioned above, is to be careful where you plant it, as it can take over areas and escape, so keep it in pots using a trellis for it to climb on, and place it in spot that it is preventive from self-propagating.

From Cuttings

I do not know much about it reproducing from cuttings, but I would say that it can quite easy to do. Simply because it is a fairly vigorous plant, of which most farmers personally hate, especially canola producers.

Maintenance

Cleavers likes a range of sunlight from full to partial shade, but prefers it more on the partial shade side.

If you are growing in the garden or in a pot, it would be a good idea to prepare a trellis, to train it on, this way, it would be easier to harvest and keep clean, as in, off the ground.

Pest and Diseases

Cleavers can get the odd pest or disease, but on the whole, it is generally free from these concerns. In fact, if a bug was more attracted to Cleavers instead your favourite flowering plant, well you are better off.

Soil and Fertiliser

Cleavers preference is for rich fertile loamy soils, and if you are going to fertilise it, then a more higher nitrogen content is preferred, and soils that are slightly moist are always better.

Climate and water

Being a plant that loves temperate regions, it can suit many places around the world and the reason I say this, is because even if your not in a temperate region, often one can adjust situations around them creating a microclimate and can accommodate the difference.


Collecting

The time to harvest Cleavers is in spring, but during the early part of the flowering stage. It is not normally grown as a ‘crop’ but is often harvested from wild sources. So if you are looking for this herb, first find out where it grows wild near you.

Drying

A particular issue when drying Cleavers, is that it has a very high water content, as much as 90%. So when drying cleavers, you will need to make sure that you supply plenty of good ventilation (air movement) with gentle heat, rotate or turn over frequently, or better still, use a fine mesh to place it on so as to allow air flow from beneath as well, and low humidity would be advisable.

If you dry it carefully following the rules above, you should have dry and crispy leaves in about 2 days depending on the climate.

Storage

Properly dried and stored Cleavers can keep for 1 to 2 years. Always store your dried herbs in dark coloured glass jars or bottles, out of the sunlight and in a dark, cool dry place.

Fresh Cleavers does not store well, due to its high water content of 90%, so you should use it fairly quickly, or you can store it in the fridge for a few days in the crisper.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Clivers, Goosegrass, Catchweed, Stickyweed, Robin-run-the-hedge, Sticky willy, Sticky willow, and Velcro weed

Botanical Name:

Galium aparine

Family:

Rubiaceae

Parts used:

Aerial parts

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 6.0 – 12.0 grams

Main actions:

Depurative/alterative, tonic, lymphatic, diuretic, detoxifier, astringent, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, adaptogen, and anti-neoplastic

Indications:

Chronic and dry skin disorders, such as dermatitis, eczema, acne, psoriasis, rosacea, urticaria, sunburn, enlarged/swollen or inflamed lymph glands (specific indication), cervical and neck nodes, nodular goitre, urinary tract infection, asthma, gout, and earache. Plus, Kidney stones and inflammation, dysuria, lymphadenitis, and lymphadenopathy

Constituents:

Iridoid glycosides – monotropein, coumarin glycoside, citric acid, galiosin, scopoletin, tannin, phenolic acids, flavonoids, derivatives of anthraquinone, and polyphonic acids

Safety concerns:

None known

Adulterants:

None known



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

Name Logo

Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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“We should always be sure of what we cleave to, to be safe from what we may be cleaved from.”

Herbal Panda

I am writing this during the spread of the ‘Corona virus – Corvid 19’ in Australia, and observing the hysteria and panic buying, reminds me of why I started learning about herbs and self-sufficiency in the first place, what will you do when these things happen?

Any form of natural disaster, or break down in the system can possibly cause massive shortages in supplies of food, water and energies.

But worst of all, what about medical supplies:

How will you survive without your medications!?

Now the purpose of this is certainly not to cause undue worry and serious concern, but to encourage us into some preparedness. The purpose is to get us all to start thinking, hmmm, it would be a good idea to start moving in this direction.

Anyway, let’s chat about our main subject today.

Purslane is an annual herb, that is a native to Australia, (nobody really knows its exact origin, some say from Greece to China), as it has been around for such a long time now, but is found in temperate regions all around the world.

Its botanical name comes from the Latin potare, which means to “carry,” and lac or “milk,” the milky like sap of the plant, which may be why so many believe it helps with lactation.

Purslane or as it is sometimes ungraciously called, ‘Pigweed” has been used as a food for thousands of years, as it was eaten by the Indians and Persians (Iran) in the Middle East, and it was used as a green to go into salads in the Mediterranean, and was probably carried into Europe through Spain due to the Saracens in the Middle Ages.

During the reign of Queen Elizabeth 1st, it was first recorded to have been planted in England in 1582, and it was used as a common garden vegetable.

It was even used as a treatment for scurvy on the high seas, due to its very high Vitamin C content.

The Australian aborigines use to make a flour out of the seeds, which have the highest known source of omega-3 fatty acids* from a plant. (*Alpha linolenic acid).

They collected the seed simply by heaping the plants up side down on a smooth flat surface and allowing the seed to fall out, and found it easy to gather up.

The Australian aborigines really had an excellent, healthy and very nutritious diet, and this can be easily proven by observing the very old photos of fit and active men and women, with full sets of teeth and practically no disease to be found anywhere. We could and should learn a lot from these people.

The African Zulu used a variety called Portulaca quadrifida as an emetic.

It grows as a thick matting on the ground, but can grow up to 20cm / 8″ tall, as the branches and flowers try to reach upward towards the sun. Its leaves are generally light to dark green with green to reddish stems. Common Purslane has 2 to 3cm / 1″ long leaves, which form in clusters at the stem nodes with small yellow flowers. The seeds appear after the flowers drop off, and are black in colour and are the size of fine sand.

There are varieties that produce a whole range of bright colours and these don’t seem to be as invasive as the common Purslane, so can be used in gardens.

The Weed File

There are two other types of Purslane worth considering, and they are Golden Purslane – Portulaca oleracea var. (Sativa) and the Jade Plant – Portulacaria afra, sometimes called Elephant Food or Spekboom.

Golden Purslane is an upright (45cm / 18″) annual that has obovate fleshy yellow to lime coloured green leaves that are about 4cm / 1.5″ long. On the whole it is bigger the common Purslane in both leaf and plant size.

Jade plant is a hardy perennial, which grows much taller than both other varieties, up to 60 to 150cm / 2′ to 5′ tall. It is great for pots and other containers, as well as rock and dry gardens.

It is happy in either full sun or partial shade, and it also has succulent obovate leaves that are 1cm / 3/8″ long with red to brown stems.

My very own Jade plant, sitting in a marine/boat/macerating toilet

Also there is a Yellow Purslane – Portulaca lutea var. Soland, which can be found in New Zealand.


How To Use Purslane

There are two main ways to use Purslane, and they are cooking and as a medicinal herb. Sadly, many people just don’t know either, all they can do is complain about some ‘weed’ in their garden or lawn and spray it with something which would harm them more then help them.

In a era of anything made with Kale, has to be good, we completely over look good ole Purslane. But all you need to do is go out and pick a handful of bright green leaves and cast them into your salad bowl with other greens etc., and voila, there you have an interesting green salad, full of nutrition.

Medicinally, it is extremely high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are very necessary for good health and especially heart and nerve health, which we all need to be aware of. Topically, it can be used on insect bites and burns, plus, sore, irritable, and inflamed skin, such as eczema for example.

Those with gout shouldn’t not eat it raw, due to its oxalic acid, but used as a poultice externally has benefits.

Herbal Teas

Purslane tea itself was once drunk as a tonic for the whole body.

Simple Purslane Tea

Being easy and simple to make, plus the benefits of its nutrition, why not have a try at making Purslane tea.

To make Purslane tea, just grab a small amount of the leaves and stems, (younger leaves are better) place them into a cup, pour in boiling hot water, allow it to steep for about 15 minutes, and drink.

You can add a little sweetener such as raw honey, or stevia if needed.

Customised Purslane Teas

Some say it has a lemony or acidic flavour, which could mean adding lemon or lime juice or herbally you could try lemon balm, or lemon grass, which could make things interesting. But don’t let yourself stop there, why not add Chamomile or Peppermint with a bit of Ginger.

So why not develop your own personal favourite?

Culinary Uses of Purslane

When picking Purslane for cooking, it is best to pick all the young and tender leaves as these are nicer than the older ones, and the best time for picking is before the flowers come on. Some actually use the flowers in salads and meals too.

So if you want to experiment with Purslane, just think of where and how you could use a green vegetable, like spinach? And most likely you have an answer, for example, any type of salad, stir-frys, coleslaw, steamed veggies, juice drinks and smoothies, soups e.g. sorrel soup, stews and broths, casseroles, dumplings, any egg dishes, and omelettes, pancakes, fritters, and you can even pickle it with apple cider vinegar.

A few more specific uses could be steaming the young shoots and serving them up in a buttery sauce with a little salt and pepper, mixing the leaves in a sandwich with cream cheese or an egg and Purslane sandwich.

Purslane is one of the traditional ingredients of the French soup called Bonne femme, and in the Middle Eastern salad called Fattoush.

Before I got married, I use to work on a farm growing various fruits and vegetables and the farmer described one day how he use to eat Pigweed soup, when growing up as a child, and I was quite surprised, as at that stage I only of thought Purslane as a ‘weed’.

Yes, Pigs love Pigweed too!

PigWeed Soup

Ingredients

  • 1 heaped cup of Purslane, chopped
  • 1 large potato finely chopped
  • 1 large onion chopped
  • 6 cups of stock, usually chicken
  • Salt and pepper for taste
  • 1 cup of milk
  • 1/4 to 1/2 cup of cream (optional)

Method

  • Place all ingredients into a suitable saucepan except for the milk and cream
  • Place it in low simmering water for five minutes
  • Take off the heat and use a stick blender (or similar) to blend until smooth with no lumps
  • Just before serving, reheat and now you can add the milk and cream
  • Serve and enjoy

Health Uses of Purslane

There are two minerals that men and women generally need and that is zinc for men and iron for women, and Purslane is quite high in iron assisting them in this nutritional requirement.

It is also high in other minerals such as, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and lithium, and Vitamins such as, A – via its betacarotene, Bs such as folate, C and E, and being so rich in so many goodies makes it a wonderful tonic for the whole body. And I have found that most of humanity is deficient in magnesium.

As mentioned above it is high in Vitamin C, so if you cannot get a hold of Vitamin C, then eat plenty of Purslane.

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Purslane or Ma Chi Xian – 馬齒莧 or what Chinese practitioners would call the “vegetable for long life.” and what an amazing title for what most people want to kill.

From the TCM view point, it is classified as sour and cold in treatment and is used for the organ meridians of liver, heart and large intestine.

Its actions include: Clearing heat, cools the blood, plus, clearing damp heat of skin disorders, and they use it for swelling and pain of insect and snake bites, amongst many other indications.

Purslane Health Recipes

Poultice for Inflamed Breasts

This is made by mixing an oil such as a little coconut oil, a raw egg and Purslane. Place all the ingredients into a blender, and blend until you have a thick paste, and apply thickly and cold to reduce inflammation. This poultice can be left on for several hours or overnight.

Inflammation of the Urethra

Make a decoction by bringing to a boil and then simmering low for a few minutes, 60 grams of Purslane, 6 grams of Liquorice root and a cup water. Allow to cool slightly, strain and drink.

It can be turned into a mouth wash and gargled for any infections in the mouth. For coughs and shortness of breath, crush out the juice and mix it with a little honey, and gargle.

Those with reflux can eat Purslane to assist with alleviating stomach acid issues.

Gardening Uses of Purslane

Because Purslane is frankly one of the easiest things to grow, it is a great plant for those who want a pretty garden with colour and greenery, but just don’t want to put in the effort, like no effort. There is quite a range of varieties that produce many different bright colours, sizes and shapes. Plus, it doesn’t just flower for a short period and then disappear, but stays around for quite some time, providing lots of colour.

This simplicity makes it great for rock gardens, and for example, just stick it into those gaps and holes in between the rocks or logs if you want and let it grow with splashes of colour coming out for you to enjoy.

It also makes a excellent ground cover, thickly growing up and over whatever is near, but not over very large objects, which is another reason to grow it as a ground cover or in rockeries to fill in gaps.

Other Uses of Purslane

Grazing stock just love the stuff, and if you have any in the paddock they will find it and it will be gone, so encouraging it to grow out in the meadows for animals to eat is a good thing, as it is quite nutritious for them.


How to Grow Purslane

Purslane is just so simply to grow, and probably the best plan to grow it is to neglect it, and you’ll find that you can love it to death. But if you must, a little organic composting or fertilising (nitrogen) will give you thicker and more succulent leaves.

From Seed

The black seeds of Purslane are quite small and can lay dormant for up to seven years or more, so even if it dies down, and disappears, it may just as easily pop up next year. Each plant can produce thousands more of its own kind.

The best season to plant Purslane is in early spring, or once there are no more frosts, but if you are in tropical regions then you would be best to plant in Autumn.

Simply spread out the seed into a seed container filled with equal parts of sand and potting mix, and lightly water in. In a short while you should have germination, and just transplant these into pots, to get established and harden up a bit, then plant them into your garden etc. They should be ready to harvest in about 6 to 8 weeks.

From Leaves

You can propagate Purslane directly from the leaves, like most succulents, but it can be a bit of a ‘hit and miss’ affair. Just carefully break off whole leaves from the variety you want, and place these onto the soil/seed raising mix and just keep the soil slightly damp. Eventually, it will put down roots and grow.

From Cuttings

From about the middle of spring, take your cuttings of about 5cm / 2″ long, remove any bottom leaves, and place these into a sandy potting mix, keeping the mix slightly damp and warmish. Keep the container out of direct sunlight, and once growing roots, you can transplant these out into your pots or garden.

From Layering

Purslane as it spreads out and touches the ground will put down roots all on its own, and from these, you are able to propagate more plants, just follow what you would do if you were normally transplanting, and water in.

Maintenance

Purslane, is one of the most easiest plants to grow, in fact, if you just leave it alone, it will just keep coming back, this is why so many people consider it, dare I say, a ‘weed’. So neglect is the order of the day, as it grows in both sun and partial shade, in any soil type, and you can forget fertilising it and can often have no water given to it for ages.

Probably the only thing to be concerned about is the fact that it can spread quite easily, I guess this is why most people consider it a weed, as it can be propagated by both seed and its leaves, so if you bump it and some of the leaves fall off, most likely the plant will regrow.

So, I have not bothered with adding my usual extras on pests and diseases, soil and fertilisers etc., and apart from the occasional slug, as it just doesn’t matter.

If you really want to keep it under control due to its ability to spread, then just eat it, don’t poison it.


Collecting

When collecting it fresh, it is best to wait at least until the plant is about 10cm / 4″ wide, that way you can get enough for at least a salad or meal and it helps you not to strip the plant too much, then it should quickly recover supplying you with even more free food.

If you are harvesting for a future meal soon, then you can leave it with its whole stems, and keep them fresh in the fridge for a few days.

Always make sure that you only collect clean and healthy leaves and stems, free from damage, grubs and insects and their eggs and any other foreign matter and dust.

Drying

To dry Purslane you can do this in either an oven or a dehydrator keeping it at about 46C / 115F, but it is just as simple to dry it in the open air, say, on dry paper towelling or cloth towelling or on a tray of fine mesh. Just keep the leaves and stems apart so that they don’t come in contact with each other or you’ll need to move them around regularly to help them dry evenly and prevent mould.

Place your Purslane in a dry and airy room away from bugs and dust etc. They usually only take 2 to 3 days to dry, depending on your weather conditions. They will need to be dry, crispy and crunchy to touch and should have kept the basic shape, colour and flavour.

Once fully dried, it can be turned into a powder and put into a huge range of meals, teas and drinks, and although you don’t have to, it is better to turn it into powder just before using it as this holds in the goodness in slowing down oxidation.

Storage

Properly dried and stored Purslane can keep for 1 to 2 years. Always store your dried herbs in dark coloured glass jars or bottles, out of the sunlight and in a dark, cool dry place.

Fresh Purslane does not store well, due to its high water content, so you should use it fairly quickly, or you can store it in the fridge for a few days in the crisper.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Wild Purslane, Pig weed, Common Purslane, Pussley, Horse Coin, Horse Money, Green Purslane, Kitchen or Garden Purslane, Yellow Portulaca

Botanical Name:

Portulaca oleracea, P, sativa

Family:

Portulacaceae

Chinese Name:

Ma Chi Xian – 馬齒莧

Parts used:

Leaf, stems, juice (The entire plant is edible)

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 6.0 – 12.0 grams

Main actions:

Refrigerant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antibiotic, tonic, alterative, mild antispasmodic, diuretic, emollient, mucilage, and emmenagogue

Indications:

Headaches – nervous excitability, sore throat, sore gums, gingivitis, mouth wash, urethra pain, dry cough, muscular rheumatism, jaundice, gout – poultice, skin ulcers and sores. Plus, Dysentery, post partum bleeding, anti tumour, parasites, and promotes contraction of uterus

Constituents:

Extremely rich in n-3 fatty acids, Vitamin C, carotenoids, alkaloids, sitosterol, volatile oils, resin, galacturonic acid, tannins, lupeol, glycoside, sterols, oxalic, citric, malic and glutamic acids, dopamine, B – Amyrin, noradrenaline, sacchariferoid, and protein

Safety concerns:

Do not use during pregnancy. Those with rheumatism and gout should avoid raw Purslane.

Adulterants:

None known



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

Name Logo

Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

HHAI Logo

“Our misunderstanding about ‘weeds’ is that we haven’t come to use them correctly, then they will cease to remain weeds”

Herbal Panda

Some of my own Purple Cone Flower

Wow, Miss Echinacea, that seems like funny name, up to four syllables I counted” questioned the little girl, whilst staring at her beautiful pink gown. “Well, my inquisitive little girl, I may have a funny name, but if people knew what I can do, they would be dancing in the streets” answered Miss Echinacea, “Really! So can I dance with you” squealed the girl, “Yes, lets dance” offered Miss Echinacea.

So where did Echinacea get its name, it comes from the Greek word, “Echinos” meaning hedgehog, referring to the centre of the flower, which becomes harder and dryer as the flower moves to maturing seed.

All Echinacea species are native to the North American prairies and woods, but these days it is just about grown anywhere with very little care.

I find the original discovery of the benefits of Echinacea very fascinating, let me tell you about it. Originally written by J.H. Henley MD.

“Many years ago American Indians observed that by tantalising the rattlesnake it would in its wrath bite itself. The creature was seen to become immediately restless and sought to retreat. On following the snake it was observed that it went straight to a certain shrub and there became a veritable ‘sucker’. When it finished sucking the plant it would seek a hole in which to hide, but not to die. It would recover. This led to the discovery of plant, Echinacea. It was from the medicine-men of the Mohawk and Cherokee Indians we obtained our first knowledge of this remarkable herbal remedy.”

From here the First Nation peoples used it for a range of ailments such as:

Infections, toothaches, many skin issues, sore throats, wounds and snake bite.

The Weed File

There are three main varieties of Echinacea that need to be considered, when using herbal remedies, and the two most common ones are Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea. They are very similar in appearance, but with a few differences:

Main Herbal varieties:

Echinacea angustifolia:

  • Grows to about 60 to 100cm / 2 to 3′ tall
  • Leaves have a smooth margin but are hairy and rough and lanceolate in shape

Echinacea purpurea:

  • Grows to about 1.5m / 5′ tall
  • Leaves are more ovate and wider with course margins

Both have the same looking flowers, which range from pink to purple, found on terminal stems.

Then there is the Pale purple coneflower.

Echinacea pallida:

  • Grows to about 60 to 100cm / 2 to 3′ tall
  • Flowers are generally more pale – pallida, have very thin and reflexed rays (drooping)
  • Leaves are also course and hairy, lanceolate and have no teeth

Of course, there are many other lesser known varieties with red, orange, yellow and white flowers, and here are a few.

  • Yellow coneflower – Echinacea paradoxa
  • Sanguine purple coneflower – Echinacea sanguinea
  • Topeka purple coneflower – Echinacea atrorubens
  • Narrow-leaved purple coneflower – Echinacea serotina
  • Tennessee coneflower – Echinacea tennesseensis
  • Wavyleaf purple coneflower – Echinacea simulata
  • smooth purple coneflower – Echinacea laevigata

How To Use Echinacea

The principle way of using Echinacea, is medicinally, and this is easy to prove just by typing the word into the search bar, and rightly so, because it really is a gift to mankind. But it can easily be added to cosmetics and various personal body care and hygiene products.

When one considers all the many and powerful benefits of Echinacea, you see the value of adding this to toothpastes, soaps, hand cleaners, shampoos, facial and shaving creams, make-up, lipstick, lip gloss and lip balms, body washes, moisturisers, and sunscreens.

Therefore, with a bit of experimentation, anyone can make their own medicating body care products and cosmetics.

So apart from the direct medicinal use in tinctures, syrups, lozenges, liniments and powders, the most popular use is making your own herbal tea.

Herbal Teas

This is one of the most easiest and simplest way to get Echinacea into you.

Sometimes when you drink Echinacea tea you will get a real tingling sensation in your mouth, this is only for a little while and is of no concern, in fact, it is actually a sign of good quality herb, but just be aware, some folks are allergic to the Asteraceae family.

Simple Echinacea Tea

The simplest for the home user, is to pick a couple fresh leaves and flower petals about 1 to 2 teaspoons worth, finely chop them up, put them into a cup, pour in boiling hot water, cover, and allow to steep for 5 minutes.

If necessary, add a little natural sweetener, as it can be a sort of bittersweet.

To jazz things up a bit or for the adventurous, you can add a little lemon juice or even apple cider vinegar, as this adds to the extraction process making to more efficacious.

If you make a tea from the dried root, you will need to simmer it for at least 5 to 10 minutes (longer is stronger) then add your sweetener.

Even though you can use the whole plant and all of it has health benefits, its the root which is the most powerful.

Customised Echinacea Teas

Many other herbs can be added to make it more interesting and flavoursome, but if you want to really add more power to your herbal tea, then adding some Golden seal will work amazingly, but with this one, I would sip it throughout the day, don’t just drink it in one go, it’ll have more affect.

It is rare, but sometimes people can have a nauseous feeling, and if you do, try adding some liquorice root with it as it seems to keep things calm.

Culinary Uses of Echinacea

Now this will probably be a short list of ideas, because really, the idea of using Echinacea in cooking isn’t very high on anybodies list.

Because you can buy Echinacea in powder form, you can make super healthy foods by adding this special ingredient. So, you could add the powder to pancakes, pikelets and fritters, blended into smoothies and juice drinks, sprinkled on the oatmeal or breakfast cereal. Also, for those who are a little more adventurous, you add it to your home made pasta or vegetable dishes. With the flower petals, add them to jams or jellies for interest, plus they could be used as decorations, floating on drinks and desserts. And finally you can juice the leaves and add that to juice shots.

Please let me know if you have heard of any culinary dishes using Echinacea in some way, as I would love to here from you.

Health Uses of Echinacea

When it comes to Echinacea, there isn’t much it can’t help you with, such that if you’re sick, just take echinacea, and at least something good should happen. No, its not a complete panacea, but I will tell you what, it is one of my back stops for many issues, as it will help in ways you may not have thought of.

The main reason for Echinacea’s great success, is that it is both immune stimulating and modulating, and this knowledge of it resisting infection has been known for over a hundred years by the west. So if you think about it, many problems we face in life come from bad diet, and bad ‘bugs’. And when it comes to especially bad bugs, Echinacea, can help with viruses, bacteria, fungi and even parasites.

So, if you keep thinking about it, how many conditions could involve these baddies.

In the world of herbs, quite often, slightly different varieties do contain different amounts of different constituents, therefore, taking just one variety may not actually be the best solution, unless you know that that variety is specific for that condition. Where it’s easy to come unstuck, is that most books just don’t tell you which variety is best for what, So an easy method to deal with this is simply to take a ‘blend’, that is, mixing together both E. angustifolia and E. purpurea. So, if you purchase some capsules for example, and you read that it has at least these two varieties, then you are generally safe.

A very simple tip on how to use Echinacea, is to slowly suck on or chew a small piece of the root (1 to 2grams) as it can have as much efficacy on your system as many of the fancy tinctures. (Remember the rattle snake story above?)

Indications for Echinacea

For a general list of suggestions for using Echinacea:

  • All infections: bacterial, viral and parasitic (topical and internal)
  • Skin disorders: wounds, boils, abscess and acne
  • Respiratory conditions: colds, flu, fever, pertussis, sinusitis, bronchial, tonsillitis
  • Gastrointestinal: diarrhoea, dysentery, IBS, ulcers, gingivitis, candidiasis
  • Urinary: cystitis, urethritis
  • Immune deficiency and post viral
  • Inflammation and also in the connective tissue
  • STD’s/STI’s
  • Reducing the effects of Chemotherapy

Areas of caution

One of its benefits is that it stimulates or boosts your immune system, and this is normally a very good thing, but, there are a few people who should completely avoid this herb, and these are especially those who are going to or have recently had an organ transplant. I would definitely speak to your health care professional if you have ever had a transplant, before taking this herb.

Also, if you do have a serious disorder such as, AIDS, HIV, MS, leukosis, auto-immune and collagenosis, for example, please speak to you health care professional, before taking Echinacea.

Oil of Echinacea

Although not as famous as many of the essential oils, Echinacea essential oil has basically the same benefits of the herb itself. Essential oils should always be applied topically and with a carrier oil, say Jojoba or coconut oils for example.

Gardening Uses of Echinacea

Echinacea is actually a very easy plant to grow. It is a plant suitable for borders or filling in small holes that can do with a splash of colour.

Some folks just don’t want a flowing green lawn but actually want more of a meadow, which actually can save water, fuel and time, so Echinacea can provide an interesting addition to your ‘field’.

It attracts butterflies, bees and other pollinators and some birds for either the nectar or the seed, and this is generally a good thing as a natural form a pest control.

Echinacea does have a fragrant flower that unless you have lots of them will not dominate the garden, and it flowers for about 3 months, depending on your climate.

Other Uses of Echinacea

The flowers are quite long lasting and therefore, can be used as cut and dried flowers to pop into your favourite vase.


How to Grow Echinacea

Echinacea is a herbaceous perennial that dies down in winter, but will spring back up in spring. I encourage every and anyone to grow their own, as people and especially companies find it of tremendous value that it may become endangered.

Echinacea is a very low maintenance plant, that is easy to grow, perfect for those who do not wish to be too busy in the garden, and it is good for those who do not have much water, or frankly forget to water, as it is suitable for drought or hot conditions, tolerates humidity and can grow in poor clay, dry, shallow or rocky soils.

Echinacea is also an excellent plant for putting into pots, and putting on your balcony, and if it’s cold, wet and damp, just bring it inside, as they don’t like being cold, wet and damp.

Echinacea does re-bloom, but does not drop its dead flowers, but with a quick snip of the secateurs will soon fix that.

From Seed

Echinacea does self seed, so once established in the garden, or even in a pot it will come back year after year. Or, you can collect the seeds and plant these in pots or spread them throughout the garden or meadow.

Although germination can be rather slow, it is definitely worth a try. Cold Stratifying the seed is highly advisable. So place the seed into moist sand and for about 3 to 4 weeks keep them at 0C / 32F, then take them out and wait for them to germinate. Once they start coming up and have at least four leaves, gently transplant them into bigger pots, and when ready, transplant them into much larger pots, at least 20cm / 8″ or into the garden.

Remember don’t over water them as they don’t like it.

From Division

Echinacea naturally forms clumps, and from these, you can create divisions and propagate from them. The biggest issue with division is that most varieties have tap roots, except E. purpurea, and most plants with tap roots just don’t do so well once it is damaged. So care needs to be taken.

So, if you do wish to propagate via division, every 4 years, and in spring, divide the clump as they do become overcrowded, this is especially so in pots, and it isn’t a bad idea in the garden as well.

Maintenance

Actually, Echinacea is a very low maintenance plant, easy for those lazy gardeners, who forget to water and fertilise, and don’t care for sprays and poisons, so if that’s you, here is your plant.

The only pruning that may want to do, but its not really necessary, is to remove the dead heads, as they don’t look real nice, but from these it does self seed. So if you want, you can either chop up the dead heads and leave them on the ground or collect the seeds and keep them for next year or just let them be.

Pest and Diseases

It is rarely affected by pests and diseases so don’t get too concerned, but, I have complied a list of possible baddies: Japanese beetle, vine weevils, leaf miners, slugs and snails, plus, powdery mildew, leaf spot, bacterial spots, grey mould, and a virus-like disease called ‘aster yellow’.

Soil and Fertiliser

Due to the tough hardiness of the plant, frankly you don’t need to fertilise much at all, but if you do, just give it a little organic fertiliser at the beginning of its growing season, as it seems to do better with neglect than good-loving.

Climate and water

Echinacea will just about grow in any climate, except for extremes such as wet and damp, and in most situations this is easily fixed by carefully placing the potted plant indoors or suitably designed structures.

Regular watering is fine, but don’t be excessive, and at times you can let it dry out some, remember it does naturally grow out in the prairies and woodlands, and we should copy its original habitat.


Collecting

The time of the year to pick the flowers and leaves is just as the flowers are starting to bloom, and before they are fully formed, or harvest the roots during full bloom.

Collect the seed after the flowers have died back, and then fully dry them out by cutting up the seed heads into smaller parts.

When harvesting the arial parts, always wait until the dew has dried off, checking for any damage, insects and their eggs and any foreign matter.

The roots are best collected from at least 4 year old plants, as this is when they are most medicinal.

Drying

To dry the leaves and the flower petals, spread them out on dry paper or dry towelling keeping the parts from touching each other, or at least keep turning them over keeping them well ventilated.

They should retain their colours and fragrances, but just be dry and brittle.

Storage

Store all dried components in dark coloured glass jars or bottles that seal air tight and kept out of sunlight. If there is no foreign matter, bugs etc., and everything is thoroughly dry, it should keep up to 1 to 2 years.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Cone flower, Black Sampson, Rudbeckia, E. purpurea (Purple cone flower), Missouri coneflower 

Botanical Name:

Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, E. pallida

Family:

Asteraceae

Parts used:

Root or aerial parts or whole plant

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 2.5 – 5.0 grams

Main actions:

Immune enhancing, immune modulating, antioxidant, prophylactic, depurative/alterative, lymphatic, anti-inflammatory, blood cleanser, detoxicant, vulnerary, sialogogue, antiseptic, deodorant, tonic, antibiotic, analgesic, antifungal, antibacterial, antiscrofulus, parasiticide/anthelmintic, vasodilator, diaphoretic, antiallergenic

Indications:

Acute infections: viral, bacterial, parasitic (all acute doses, chronic infections, swollen lymph glands, splenic enlargement, infection prevention, slows immunological ageing, upper an lower respiratory conditions: common cold, influenza, conjunctivitis, sinusitis, nasopharyngeal catarrh, infections otitis media, pneumonia, pleurisy, bronchiectasis, acute bronchitis, bronchial asthma, pertussis, skin conditions: boils/ furunculosis, abscesses, ulcers and varicose ulcers, dermatitis, psoriasis, cellulitis, herpes, shingles, Gastrointestinal conditions: infection candidiasis, peptic ulcer dysentery, cholecystitis, infectious hepatitis, UTI’s: cystitis, urethritis, kidney infections, dental caries – prevention, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, mouth ulcers – liquid better, Systemic infections: glandular fever, Ross River virus, mastitis, measles, mumps, and insect stings.

Plus, Autoimmune disease (caution), adjunct to cancer therapy – chemotherapy, radiotherapy, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, lymphoma, promotes healing, venomous bites, chronic fatigue, fibromyalgia, and post-viral syndromes

Constituents:

Flavonoids, alkaloids, essential oil, polysaccharides, inulin, Inuloid, alkylamides – isobutylamide – echinacein, phenolic acid derivatives – cichoric acid; echinocoside. Check for levels of alkylamide content, phyto-oestrogen, phytosterols, betaine, resin, vulose, sucrose, fatty acids, 

Safety concerns:

Much of the concerns brought up about Echinacea really don’t have any bases, but taking a few precautions, should greatly protect your well being.

  • Some people may be allergic to it, think ragweed or sunflowers
  • Immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplants

Adulterants:

Sometimes they are adulterated with another variety of the same species, or adulterated with Parthenium integrifolium.



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

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Herbal Panda

“Mister Elderberry, how are you today”, said the wayfaring man walking along the path. “I’m actually feeling quite well indeed, is there anything I can help you with, as those in the know, know I have so much to offer” replied Mr Elderberry. “Oh really!?” said the wayfaring man, “Yes, I am the ‘Poor Man’s Pharmacy” declared Mr Elderberry.

Elder, has been in use since the ancients Egyptians and has not been out of use right up until today, and since colds and flus are just so common these days, it should be in everyones ‘medicine cabinet’, or at least growing somewhere in the backyard.

Elder was once known by the ‘ancients’ as “rixus, ixus or akte”, but was later on called Sambucus, which dates from the early Greek times who called it Sambuke, coming from the name of a harp made from the wood and was then to become part of its botanical name.

The term Elder, is said to come from the Anglo Saxon words ‘Ellaern or Aeld’, which mean either fire or kindle, due to the fact that the stems could be hollowed out and used to start fires.

Elder, especially the common Elder – Sambucus nigra, is native to Europe, North Africa and Western Asia, and don’t forget the American Elder – Sambucus canadensis, a native to North America, was used by the first nation peoples there.

It is thought that the original pipes of pan were made from Elder, as the common Elder can be easily hollowed out, if it can’t, you have the wrong variety. Plus, the English boys of old used to hollow out its stems to make a ‘pop gun’, as Mr Nicholas, mentions in his book stating,

“I hold it needless to write any description of this, since every boy that plays with a pop gun will not mistake another tree instead of elder:”

He does go on to speak on behalf of Dwarf Elder, but this must only be handled by a experienced herbalist, as it is much stronger than the common Elder.

The book “Memoirs Illustrative of the Life and Writings of John Evelyn“, written by John Evelyn in the 17th century, mentioned Elder by saying,

“If the medicinal properties of its leaves, bark, and berries were fully known, I cannot tell what our countrymen could ail for which he might not fetch a remedy from every hedge, either for sickness or wounds.”

The Weed File

There are two types of Elder bush or shrub that are considered when thinking ‘Elder’, and they are the European or Common Elder – Sambucus nigra or the American Elder – Sambucus canadensis. The European variety grows to a height of 7m / 22′ tall and the American variety grows to a height of 3m / 11′ tall, both have value.

There is the lesser known Golden Elder – Sambucus nigra ‘Aurea’, known for its golden yellow leaves.

Ultimately, there are many other varieties, but a couple you may need to be careful of are the Dwarf Elder – Sambucus ebulus, as all parts are somewhat poisonous, and the Red Elder – Sambucus racemosa, as the seeds are poisonous until properly cooked.


How To Use Elder

Medicine, cosmetics and cooking are the three main ways the Elder and its various parts get used.

Medicinally in infusions, decoctions, syrups and tinctures, which are used either directly for specific conditions, or they are used in combination with other treatments, such as compresses, poultices, lotions, ointments, creams, salves and washes and soaks.

For cosmetics, it has being shown that the flower is good for the skin, which can be used in some kinds of creams or lotions, but even the infusion of the flower can help simply as a skin cleanser, especially for greasy skin. An extension of this could be to use the flower in poultices and compresses, or even a soaking bath, which sounds good to me!

The Elderflower can make an interesting flavoured cordial or an iced Elderflower water, also the berries and flowers can be used in pancakes, fritters, cakes, tarts and fruit minces, added to jams and jellies or even added to salads. Let alone in chocolate custard, hot beverages, soups, gingerbread men, and vinegars. Plus, the berries can be used as a replacement for capers or raisins.

Herbal Teas

Teas are one of my favourite ways to consume most herbs, and here you can use the flower in a tea, which makes a great night cap. Plus, they ensue many of its other benefits, as well as being enjoyable.

Simple Elder Tea

  • Place 1 to 2 teaspoons of the flower into a cup (Less, if using dried flowers)
  • Pour in boiling hot water and cover
  • Allow to infuse for 5 minutes
  • Either strain or drink as is

Good to drink 3 times per day, but if you are after more therapeutic value, then you’ll need to drink it every 2 hours until things settle down.

If you drink the tea ‘hot’, then it tends to have an excitable stimulating affect, but if you allow it to go cold, then it is more sedative and can have a laxative affect. You can also use cold tea to soothe and help to heal chapped skin and infected or sore eyes.

Customised Elder Teas

Simply by adding a little lemon juice, steeping with lemon grass or adding peppermint, can really excite you Elderflower tea. Plus, you could also add Lemon balm, Chamomile, Rose petals or Lavender.

To make a more interesting tea, and make it more therapeutic, you can use it with equal parts of peppermint and yarrow. This is great for preventing hayfever and reducing fevers.

Culinary Uses

There are many traditional recipes using its berries and flowers, so I am sure a little searching in the internet, should pull up a few very tasty treats.

The Elderberry is not eaten raw, but is used in some form of cooking process, such as making fruit mince pies (from dried berries) and tarts (with apple), jellies and jams go well with crabapple and in chutneys.

Being a berry, it can be mixed with any of the other berries, such as, blackberry, and raspberry, or frankly any other dried fruits such as raisins or sultanas.

Elderflower Fritters

Make a batter by combining 1 cup of flour, 1 beaten egg yoke, and add just a small amount of water until you have a smooth batter. Melt 1 tablespoon of butter and add it to the mix, and finally, fold in 1 stiffly beaten egg white.

Dip the Umbels – Flower heads into the mix and fry in hot oil. Once fried, remove and place them on a rack to drain. Serve them up immediately, with a gentle dash of your favourite sweetener.

Health Uses of Elder

Those who know something about Elder, know that it is excellent for coughs, colds and flus, but it also helps in their prevention, so here, it is especially great for children, being a powerful antiviral, as they just seem to pick up everything.

You can it for sinusitis, and for hayfever, and many other fevers and causes of fevers. Plus, when added to fennel, it can be a help to those with sciatica.

For hayfever, you can drink three cups of Elderflower tea each day, several months before the hayfever would normally begin. Also, if you are already suffering, you can eat the flowers straight to get some relief.

Externally, you can make washes for the mouth and sore eyes, or make a warm or cold compress to put on the eyes to sooth them. If you add it to a cream, it can be used on sore, inflamed and irritable skin, chapped lips and hands or itchy ‘nether regions’.

A very common issue with children and medicines is that it is ‘yucky’, but if you make an Elderberry Rob, you can add it to the medicine, to greatly improve its flavour.

Elderberry Rob

Elderberry Rob is great for adding to cough and cold medicines, or simply as a flavouring in a suitable meal, dessert or drink.

Ingredients
  • Collect enough Elderberries to produce 500ml / 1 pint of Elderberry juice
  • 1 teaspoon of Allspice
  • 1/2 teaspoon of Ginger powder
Method
  • Squeeze all the juice out of the berries
  • Compost the seeds and the skins
  • Place the juice and the spices into a heavy bottomed saucepan
  • Under a low heat reduce down until it is a very thick consistency
  • Scrap into a clean sterile jar, label and store in a cool dry place

Should keep for 6 months.

Elderberry Ointment

Elder leaf ointment is useful for painful piles, and similar swellings and swollen joints, plus, it can be used in poultices and compresses.

Ingredients
  • 1/4 cup of Beeswax
  • 1/2 cup of Olive oil
  • 1/3 of a cup of Elder leaves (heaped)
Method
  • Gently melt the beeswax in a double boiler until clear
  • When thoroughly melted, add the olive oil and stir in
  • Now add the leaves and heat (don’t boil) until the leaves are crisp
  • Remove from the heat, finely strain and place in a shallow wide mouth jar
  • Seal and label

Should keep up to 6 months.

Elderberry Syrup

  • Place 1 cup of dried Elderberries into a bowl with 2 cups of water and cover and allow to soak over night or at least 8 hours
  • After soaking, put them into a blender and smash them up
  • Put this into a cloth and press out the juice, such as a tincture press
  • You only want the juice, so the skin and seeds can be sent to the compost bin
  • Put this juice into a saucepan and gently simmer down until about half
  • Either add 1 cup of vegetable glycerine or 1 cup of honey
  • When thoroughly mixed, strain or filter out any final particles
  • Pour into a dark coloured bottle, label and date

Store in the fridge and it should last about a year.

Oil of Elder

The essential oil can be used in petaled perfumery, added to body oils, and blend well with many other essential oils. Such as, Chamomile, Jasmine, Rose, Linden Flowers, Neroli, Ylang ylang, Geranium, Vanilla, Lavender, Lemon balm, Frankincense, Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon, and Lime.

Gardening Uses of Elder

Elder has such wonderful and delightful sprays of flowers that visually they make good additions to the garden, let alone its powerful smell. But it should be remembered that it is only the European variety that has the strong fragrance, not the American variety.

If you don’t want a solid fence, then Elder is an excellent plant to use as a hedgerows, for either privacy screening, wind protection or just to hide an ugly structure or object.

Apart from being used in hedgerows, two of the main reasons to grow Elder is its flowers, which have a beautiful scent, that can hang around for up to two months, starting in early summer. The berries, which can arrive early summer and into the autumn, have many uses or even just to feed the birds, if you’re too slow at picking them. They also help to attract both butterflies and bees, which many are welcome in the garden.

An interesting gardening use for Elder is where you make a strong decoction from the leaves, which becomes a contact insecticide for greenfly, aphids and caterpillars.

Other Uses

You can spray a decoction from the leaves on yourself to repel mosquitoes and flies.

Dyeing with Elder
  • If your after a black dye, you can use the bark of the tree
  • The root and leaves with alum supplies a green colour
  • The berries give a purple to blue colour

It is said that if any livestock, which has ‘foot-rot’, eats the bark and leaves of the Elder, then they should soon be on the way to healing.


How to Grow Elder

The Elder loves full sun and doesn’t mind ‘moist soils’ and isn’t very fussy where it grows so long as it is ‘reasonable’ soil. If you are short on space you can use pots, and container growing is possible, but, not the best way to go, so getting a ‘large’ pot would be helpful. If you do have a small garden, but don’t want to use pots, it can be used as a hedge, so as to block nosey neighbours or fill a ugly corner.

Elder is a deciduous perennial shrub/bush or tree, that depending on your variety can grow from 2 to 7m / 6.5′ to 23′. That develop sprays or umbels of beautiful white to cream flowers, that are 0.5cm / 1/4″ in diameter, and star shaped.

Elderberries can just about grow anywhere decent but prefer, sunny to partially shaded areas, mildly acidic (5.5 to 6.5) fertile soils that are well drained.

Tip: Cross pollinated flowers tend to produce bigger berries.

From Seed

Yes, you can grow from seed, but, on the whole, this is a much slower way to propagate. And honestly, I wouldn’t bother, for several reasons. 1) It takes a very long time from start to getting your first crop. 2) The germination rate is very poor, sometimes complete failure, and 3), there is no consistency with what you end up with and its parents.

  • Gather your berries mid to late summer, once the fruit has ripened. Place them into a bucket and smash them up a bit to allow the seed to separate and cover them with water.
  • Allow them to stand for 24 hours stirring them from time to time, shaking the seeds loose. Anything that floats to the surface is of no good, so throw that away. After the 24 hours decanter anything that floats off the top and collect the seeds at the bottom.
  • Clean up the seeds so that there is no fruit pulp left. Fill up some small pots with equal parts of course sand and clean potting mix. Place a few seeds in each.
  • Place the pots in plastic bags and keep the pots slightly moist and warm for at least 2 months by either keeping them in a hot house/ glass house, sun room or near a sunny window, so long as they stay between 24 to 27 C / 75 to 80 F.
  • Now you need to reduce the temperature to at least 4 C / 40 F for 3 to 5 months to copy what would happen in winter. (Cold scarifying)
  • After this period, remove the plastic and keep them warm in between 20 to 30 C / 68 to 85 F for 1 to 2 months. Keep the soil slightly moist and hopefully something might come up.
  • If more than one seedling comes up, pluck out the weaker ones and keep the healthiest. You can allow the soil to become a ‘little’ drier to prevent any rot etc.
  • Once the seedlings have become well established, and have become somewhat hardened, especially if the roots start popping out the bottom, transplant them out into your garden at about 2 to 3m / 6 to 10′ apart.

From Cuttings

The best time for cuttings is late summer to autumn, you can use root cuttings as well, but these seem to be more difficult to do.

To do a cutting, choose a soft branch that is going from green to brown and hardening up. Cut it up into 10 to 15cm / 4 to 6″ lengths, remove most of the leaves from the bottom up, but leave a few on top.

You can then choose to use water or potting mix.

Water

Place these cuttings into a glass jar and fill until the cuttings are about halfway up. Leave this jar in a sunny area for 1 1/2 to 2 months, changing the water regularly. Occasionally spray a mist over these to help prevent them from drying out. By about 2 months you should start seeing roots forming, but wait until they look strong and healthy before attempting to plant them into the ground.

Potting Mix

Before putting your cuttings in soil, first give them a soak for 12 to 24 hours. Then make up a mix of equal parts of sand and peat moss, and dampen this mix but not soaking wet. Place this moist mix into 5 to 10cm / 2 to 4″ pots and then place your cuttings into these pots to about a depth of 1/3. Place these pots either into a hot house/glass house or cover them with a clear plastic bag and tie them with a rubber band. Keep them in a well lit area but not in direct sunlight. Keep the potting mix only slightly moist.

After a month and a half, the roots should be starting form, and once roots just start to come out of the bottom. Remove the plastic and allow the plants to harden for a week in sunlight and then transplant them out into your garden.

Maintenance

For Elder, it is best to mulch instead of digging out the weeds, as digging them out can damage the roots. If any weeds do get through, then get a sharp pointy object, like a Philip’s screwdriver, and dig down beside the weed and wiggle him out.

Elder likes about 2.5 to 5cm / 1 to 2″ of water per week, so make sure you keep up the water to them and watch out for dry spells, as they don’t like drought.

For the first 1 to 2 years, do not prune them, but allow them to grow wild, even allow the first crop to fall to the ground, as this allows them to get firmly established, then your harvests will be better.

There are two times when you can prune the Elder, and that is in late autumn or early spring before any growth starts and the sap really gets going.

Pest and Diseases

On the whole, Elder doesn’t get too many issues so long as you follow its basic needs, such as good rich mulching, regular watering, good sun, slightly acidic soils that are well drained, but they can get a few issues.

They do suffer from iron deficiency, so if you see yellowing leaves it may be an idea to check the levels of iron.

Also, Verticillium wilt can affect them from time to time, and the other is leaf spot, and they can get attacked from black fly.


Collecting

Harvest the flowers once they come out in full, and have had enough time to dry off from the morning dew, and be careful not to bruise them. Make sure that they are free from damage and foreign particles and any bugs of course.

The berries are harvested in the autumn, once they are shiny and of a deep purple to black colour. Do not eat the Sambucus canadensis – American Elderberries raw, only cooked.

Drying

To dry the flowers, you place the umbels or flower heads upside down on fine mesh or netting, and keep them from touchy each other. Make sure that there is plenty air circulation, in a shady spot that is dry. Once the flowers are fully dry, you can just rub the flowers off their stems and place them into air tight containers for later use.

When properly dried, which may take up to a week, they should look and smell the same as before you dried them, but they will be a bit smaller.

To dry the berries, make sure that there completely dry and have no damage or foreign matter in or on them, watch out for insects and their eggs etc, and make sure to remove any unripe berries.

Usually the best time to harvest Elderberries, is about mid morning on a cloudy day. Place your berries on clean dry paper, or fine stretched out mesh or dry towelling and spread them out to prevent them from touching each other, or at least move them around regularly to get even drying.

Try to dry them on days of low humidity and at least 25 to 32 C / 75 to 90 F and receiving direct sunlight is good, but watch out for birds and insects which may want to eat or ruin them. You can put a clear glass or plastic cover above them to protect from birds, bugs, and dust etc.

Drying time normally takes three days, but may take longer depending on the climate etc. So pick hot dry days for drying and to test them for readiness is just to pinch them and feel if they are still soft and moist, if they are, just leave them for a few days longer. In the end they should look like a lot like raisins.

Storage

The best way to store the blossoms and berries is to use dark coloured glass jars that seal very well, and keep them in a cool, dry and dark place. If stored properly, they should last up to a year, or at least until next harvest.


Herbalism

The information below is for informational and education purposes only. So please do not “self-treat”. When seeking any ‘therapeutic’ advice always see a Qualified Health Care Professional first.

Common names:

Elder, Common Elder, Elderberry, Elderflower, Sambuco, Pipe tree and Black Elder

Botanical Name:

Sambucus nigra, S. canadensis

Parts used:

Flower, berry, leaf or outer and inner bark

Dosage:

Daily minimum to maximum dosage: 6.0 – 12.0 grams (Varies on which part.)

Main actions:

  • Berry – Antiviral, anti-inflammatory, immune enhancing, antioxidant, diaphoretic, laxative, diuretic (urinary antiseptic)
  • Flower – Diaphoretic, emollient, anti-catarrhal, astringent
  • Bark – Laxative
  • Inner bark – Hydragogue / cathartic (purgative), emetic

Indications:

  • Berry – Influenza, common cold, all other acute viral infections.
  • Flower – Common cold, influenza, acute sinusitis – all acute doses, acute infections with fever, pleurisy, acute bronchitis, measles – all acute doses, chronic sinusitis, hay fever, otitis media – bacterial or serous, pharyngitis, laryngitis, nasopharyngeal catarrh, catarrhal deafness, sinus headache.
  • Flower – Asthma with sinusitis
  • Bark and berry – Constipation

Constituents:

  • Berry – Anthocyanins – sambucin, sambucyanin, flavonoids – rutin and quercetin; astragalin, isoquercitrin; essential/volatile oil, ascorbic acid, pectin, tannins, sterols.
  • Flower – Flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenes, essential/volatile oil.
  • Leaves – Sambunigrin
  • Bark – Resins
  • Seeds and Bark – Cyanogenic glycosides

Safety concerns:

  • Herbal preparation of the Berries – Safe for children. Anthocyanin constituent unstable in liquid form, although use caution with pregnancy and when lactating.

Adulterants:

  • Berry – None known.
  • Flower – Sambucus ebulus


Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in any way. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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“Berries are the lollies of creation, if only we would stay off the man made ones”

Herbal Panda

Typically, when someone says the word “Tincture”, what is meant, is a herbal extract via the process of using alcohol. A simple way to state the process is to soak a herb or part thereof in an alcohol.

They are normally better and stronger than infusions and infusions are only meant to last one maybe two days at most, of course decoctions, vinegar and glycerite extractions are good, but alcohol tinctures have very long shelf lives up to 2 to 3 years.

Thousands of years ago, humans would make their herbal extractions mostly out of water (infusions), vinegar and wine, and ultimately, the tinctures of today are the natural progression from the wine extractions.

I personally do not drink alcoholic drinks, but when it comes to tinctures, I am not ‘anti-alcohol’ due to their effectiveness, quick absorption, and that the actual alcohol consumption is very low, safe enough for young children right up to grandpa and grandma. I would not suggest it for babies, as their little bodies still haven’t developed yet and pregnant women.

Here, I would use a herbal glycerite at a much weaker dosage, and even then be careful. You can actually go through the mother, if she is breastfeeding, meaning she can take the extract and it will come out the milk.

I do very much respect that there are those who cannot and should not have alcohol for certain reasons, and this need to be kept so, and honoured.

A bit of history:

They have found ancient pottery as far back as 3150 B.C. in Egypt, containing herbal substances and resins with wine, and their ancient writings suggested: water, oil, and milk, plus a type of beer, wine, and honey. China has similar dates, with fermented beverages that contained rice, honey, plus fruit – Hawthorn, and the Talmud gives reference to a “potion of herbs’ using a wine.

And many years later even Nicholas Culpeper during the 1600’s, suggests a few recipes using alcohol.

Reasons why to do a Basic Tincture

A simple but not so obvious reason to make a basic tincture, is to learn. In other words, to become ‘expert’ at making some tinctures does require time and experience and some skill, that’s why most herbalist actually don’t make them, as they take time and it is easier just to buy them in from various companies.

That being said, there really is no reason why you can’t just start learning, develop and improve, making your own, and becoming a great herbalist and supplier yourself, or just making it for you family and friends, or even trading with your locals.

As mentioned above, if you want good efficacy, and longer lasting herbal remedies, then tinctures are the way to go, you often don’t need to make large amounts, and you can make many different ones all at the same time, really stocking up your ‘medicine cabinet’.

Another reason for making an extraction with alcohol, is that some constituents or properties will not extract well unless you use alcohol, such as gums, resins and oleoresins.

And I tell you what, making something as interesting as a tincture, is very satisfying, and not only that, when your little one gets sick (or big one sometimes) and you are able to administer a few careful drops and help them to mend, that is really empowering!!

Just like infusions, decoctions, vinegar and glycerites, they can be added to many other herbal tools, such as poultices and plasters, compresses, soaks and baths, syrups and succi, creams, ointments, and salves.

Although, it is one of the most involved forms of extraction, it really doesn’t require a huge amount of investment to start, especially if you are handy or there is someone nearby who is handy, like a hubby or father for example.

How to do a Basic Tincture

An old fashioned tincture press

Each and every herb, ‘technically’ requires having the right ratio of alcohol to herb, but if you are just starting out, and you are unsure, start at 55% or use the table below.

Percentage of alcohol for type of constituent
25%Water soluble, some glycosides and flavonoids, and a few saponins
45 – 60%Essential oils, alkaloids some glycosides and a lot of saponins
90%Resins, gums and oleoresins

An important point for beginners, when we say the percentage (%), it means actual alcohol content total within the mix. Because when you buy ‘any’ alcohol, it only has a percentage of ‘real’ alcohol and the rest is often water and other additives. So if the formula said, 55%, the rest is usually the water in the bottle. This is not a bad thing because, the ‘water part’, say, 45%, will help to extract the water-soluble constituents out of the herb too, making it even better.

With either dried or fresh herbs try to reduce the size of the herbs, by either crushing, chopping or grinding as this will increase the surface area, and extraction.

A Basic Tincture

So when calculating an average formula, you can use a 1:5 ratio, that is for every 1 gram of herb use 5mls of an alcohol. For some herbs you will need go up to a 1:10 ratio and a stronger alcohol percentage.

So lets say you want to make a Calendula tincture:

  • Take 120g / 4oz of Calendula flowers (Calendula flowers are best picked just as they are blooming and are dry)
  • Chop, bruise or lightly grind up these flowers
  • Put these into a suitable glass jar
  • Fill with 500ml / 1 pint of alcohol (for flowers you only need about 25% or more alcohol)
  • Put the lid on a shake vigorously
  • Label and date, and keep out of the sunlight
  • Continue to shake the jar each morning and afternoon for 2 weeks
  • After 2 weeks, filter out the particles and place back into the previous jar so long as its clean, but change the date to two years in the future
  • Store in a cool dry place out of the sunlight

For roots, stems and bark, you will need to continue shaking the jar for up to 3 weeks, more would be better, say 6 weeks, and you will want a higher alcohol content.

After you have made your tincture and now you want to use it, always give the tincture a really good and thorough shaking before taking it, as this is said to improve it, and think of it as a living entity.

If you want have a tincture but don’t want the alcohol, then put the dosage into just off the boil water, allow a few minutes and the alcohol will have evaporated leaving only the medication and water.

Choice of Herbs for a Basic Tincture

When it comes to choices of herbs for herbal tinctures, you can really just about do anything, but that being said, some just won’t do as well. Here you are either better off, using a different form of extraction process, or different ratios of alcohol and water.

Any part of the plant can be used in a tincture, such as flowers, leaves, fruits/berries, seeds, stems, bark, rhizomes, tubers and roots. Both fresh and dried herbs can be used, but when using fresh herbs, use 1 1/2 times as much fresh herb as dried herb.

If you are using dried herbs, always source the best you can find, that is certified organic, non-GMO, and ethically sourced. And if you are using fresh herbs, say from your garden, pick once they are dry, free from pests, diseases and damage, and choose the best season when the nutrients are flowing best. For example, the leaves before flowering, or when the flowers are in full bloom, and roots at a certain age or in a stage of growth.

Choice of Alcohol for a Basic Tincture

Some will require different ratios of water to alcohol or percentages, and some will require very high proof grain or similar alcohols and some don’t need it very strong at all. As a general rule, you usually use about 55% alcohol, but this is another area where things get more tricky and that is that for different herbs and herbal parts, you will often need to vary the ratio. See table above.

That is why it is best to start with some thing simple and work your way up. Don’t let this concern stop you from learning, just start simple, and you’ll get there.

But what if you can’t get high proof grain alcohol? But you can get, for example, a good quality white “cooking wine”. Well now here is the trick, water and alcohol freeze at different temperatures. And if you have a freezer, and a plastic container, you can raise the proof of the alcohol.

Simply pour the cooking wine into the plastic container, put the lid on, and put it into the freezer. Depending on the ability of the freezer, after one to two days, pop it out and have a look, and you will see, frozen bits of ice, this is water and the rest is mostly alcohol, remove the ice, and put it back into the freezer. Wait another one to two days and take it out again, remove the ice again. Each time you do this you are in fact, raising the ‘proof’ of you alcohol.

This was 29% Alcohol before I removed water out of it, therefore I started at 58-proof and increased it, just by freezing it in a plastic container.

If you want to be ‘technical’ you can measure the volume of water you remove and from there calculate its proof, if you love mathematics. As the proof is measured as ‘Alcohol By Volume’ (ABV) and therefore proof is measured by its volume of alcohol content.

In the US, For example 50% alcohol is called 100-proof, 75% alcohol is 150-proof, but the British calculate times by 1.75. Or you could measure it’s specific gravity using a hydrometer or alcoholmeter. But just remember, higher proof does not mean better extraction, sometimes higher means less.

For your ‘home made’ projects you can use a number of different types of alcohol, such as, vodka, sherry, brandy, whisky, rum and gin, just so long as it has a high enough alcohol content for the job. Commercial preparations typically use a food grade ‘ethanol’.

Never use rubbing/isopropyl alcohol, methylated or industrial alcohols!

Safety

  • Never use rubbing/isopropyl alcohol, methylated or industrial alcohols!
  • Always be aware of possible allergic reactions


Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in anyway. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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“If we all had to ‘take our own medicine’ we would all feel better quicker”

Herbal Panda

A Herbal Glycerite is easier to make than most extractions and therefore can be done at home by anyone. You just need to follow one main rule, keep your glycerine content always about 60% or more.

So if you are considering purchasing some glycerine, there are actually quite a few other possible uses from your purchase other than herbal glycerite.

But what is a Herbal Glycerite?

Herbs are great, and as you would have guessed by now, I have a very high opinion of them, but at times, you don’t have instant access to them, that is, difficulty with storage, accessibility, time of harvest or season, and transport, for example. So often you need to make an extract out of the herb, and store it for a period of time for use later on, and also to increase the concentration of the herbs constituents for more efficacy.

Early in man’s history he used water, vinegar and wines to store and transport these herbal qualities, and later on, he used stronger alcohols and also he discovered glycerine.

Glycerine was found to be a reasonably good solvent and a preservative as well, this makes it a suitable menstruum for herbs.

Glycerine comes from fats and oils, which are basically the same thing, sort of, and can come from both animal and plant sources and both will work. A Swedish chemist by the name of Karl. W Scheele, first discovered this in 1779, and called it the “sweet principle of fat”. It was named Glycerin, from the Greek – glykys meaning sweet, in 1811 by a French guy, called Michel Chevreul.

A man by the name of T. E. Groves originally introduced Glycerine to the herbal scene in 1867, and it was a few years after that it began to be widely used for both herbal/medical and personal and cosmetic uses. And this really is just so natural, because glycerine is a natural by-product of making soap.

Being a Humectant, which is a substance the encourages the holding of moisture, they do this by attracting water molecules to itself. This is why it is often used in skin moisturises. But it is used in a huge range of products such as, toothpastes, shampoos, moisturisers, deodorants, and makeup.

Culinarily, it can be used to blend oil and water, sweeten and moisten foods, and prevent crystals from forming frozen foods. Plus, candles and a range of other medications.

I do believe that there is a place for herbal glycerites, but some push them for reasons that are not well established, such as, that being from a ‘fresh herb’ it has more vitality or energy, but this has not being well proven. Plus, there is a ‘concern’ with the appearance that often during the process of macerating, the naturally occurring enzymes in the plant are still functioning, and therefore actually breaking down the extracted juices before preservation.

During the late 1800’s a Guy by the name of Alfred Nobel discovered the ‘peacefulness’ of nitroglycerine and then demand for glycerine “Exploded!” This does not mean that using a Herbal Glycerite will cause your kids to blowup when they irritated you.

In the 1940’s they did develop a synthetic version of glycerine from propylene, which is a byproduct of petroleum.

It is also a by-product of biodiesel manufacture, I know, I have made biodiesel too.

Reasons why to make a Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine is a viscous and syrupy like liquid, that is both colourless and odourless with a sweet taste. It’s abilities to extract are in between water and alcohol. It isn’t the best menstruum for extraction processes, but it does have a few other advantages, one is the taste factor, meaning, that it is quite sweet, and therefore, gets around the child who won’t accept the “its good for you” argument.

Another is the problem with the alcohol, that is, some cannot take any amount or form of alcohol due to alcoholic sensitivities, possible allergic reactions, serious liver disorders and religious reasons. For example, if someone from the Islamic Community came to me and wanted a herbal remedy, but would not receive any tincture made from ethanol. This way, I can give help without offence, and also follow a major rule for alternative practitioners, “First do no Harm”.

If you want to remove the ‘alcohol’ from the alcoholic tincture, but aren’t so bothered by the fact that it was originally made from alcohol or the taste, you can remove it. This is done by a placing the specific dosage into a cup of water that has just recently been boiled. Allow this to stand for about five minutes, as this will cause the alcohol content to evaporate.

Although not the best menstruum for herbs in general, glycerine does work fine with a few herbs, which have the ‘water-soluble’ constituents you require, for example Marshmallow root.

A glycerite preparation can be designed to be used both internally and externally, and this increases their use and scope greatly.

Glycerites can be added to alcohol extracts to ameliorate its taste, and to add actives, and glycerine works well tannins.

Once you have made your glycerite, you can use them in recipes and formulas that can be part of creams, lotions, gels, cleansers and exfoliants. And glycerites do have an added ability to possess the aromas of the herbs being extracted. So this gives them a special natural advantage in making topical applications both medicinally and aroma-therapeutically.

Also, glycerites are great for using alternative medicine on animals, especially due to its taste internally or even topically.

Similar to a Succi, you can use it to preserve expressed herbal juices instead of alcohol, but it won’t have the shelf life of the grain alcohol, and you will need to keep the ratio at least 1:3, that is one part juice to 3 parts glycerine.

How to do a Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine is often readily available from chemists, supermarkets, sometimes hardware and even some farming suppliers, plus there are heaps of online suppliers too, so obtaining glycerine shouldn’t be a problem.

Always choose a organic, GMO free version, and ethically sourced to your preferences.

An important point when making glycerites is to try to be meticulously clean and hygienic, glycerine is not such a killer of bacteria as alcohol. So make sure your herbs are clean of any bugs, or other foreign matter, dust and soil, and manure etc.

Basic Herbal Glycerite

Glycerine and Water combination

  • Finely chop, grind 50g herbs and place in a suitable jar
  • Add 500ml glycerin
  • Add 340ml pure water
  • Give it a good shake to combine the glycerine and water and to cover all of the herbs
  • Replace the lid tightly and shake it every day for 2 weeks minimum, longer is better
  • Strain or filter out the herbs (this may be slow)
  • You can use a tincture press with cheese cloths or similar (faster)
  • If you are using powder, you will need fine filtering

Glycerine only

  1. Collect your herbs after the moisture has dried off
  2. Check for and remove any dirt, dust or foreign matter, such as insects and their eggs
  3. Finely chop or grind up the herbs being processed
  4. Fill a suitable jar to about 1/2 to 2/3 of jar with the herbs
  5. Completely cover the herbs and fill with 100% glycerine
  6. Make sure you glycerine is approximately at least two times the herb
  7. Put the lid on the jar and label the contents and shake the jar
  8. Allow to macerate for two to four weeks, shaking it daily (4 to 6 weeks is better)
  9. After 2 weeks, press it out using 2 or 3 layers of cheesecloth and tincture press
  10. You may need to go finer if you were using a powder
  11. Pour into a clean sterilised glass jar and label and date
  12. You can immediately use it, if needed

Dosage would be about 2/3 of a teaspoon, 3 times daily, can be taken in a little water.

On the whole, your herbal glycerite will have a shelf life if stored well, of about 1 to 2 years, and make sure you store out of the sunlight and in a cool dry place.

Choice of Herbs for a Herbal Glycerite

Two things that make a herb, a ‘better’ choice of herbs, is that they work best with fresh herbs, and the more water soluble the constituents are the better the choice of herb. That being said, you can honestly use either dry or fresh, or just about any herb, they just get a little more complicated. But start with an easy herb first.

A minor point here in Australia, but more important in colder countries, is to pick your fresh herbs in the spring and summer, to get the most ‘juiciest’ herbal parts, even picking shortly after rain can add to the water content. If they are very watery, then be careful, as too much water content can cause problems, particularly with preservation, and you may need to alter the formula.

By no means a complete list, but here are some herbs you could try:

German chamomile, Burdock, Calendula, Echinacea spp., Fennel, Ginger, Peppermint, Hawthorn berry, Mugwort, Elderberry flowers, Cleavers, Lavender, Bee balm, Lemon balm, Oregon grape root, Skullcap, Mullein leaves, Golden seal, Nettle, Oats, Plantain, Rose petals, Chaste tree, Turmeric, Valerian, and Yarrow.

Variations of a Herbal Glycerite

Apart from the possible variations of a huge range of herbal choices, and using them internally and externally, plus for cosmetic and culinary uses, you can also add essential oils to them. This is due to glycerine’s ability to solubilise them into the mix. Don’t use essential oils internally, only externally.

Although I have not tried it myself, you can actually make glycerites out of ordinary foods, such as fruits and vegetables, but you’ll need to pick fresh and high in water soluble constituents.

Safety

  • Always be aware of a allergic reaction to any new herb you try
  • If adding essential oils only use that glycerite ‘externally’
  • Some people do react against glycerine itself although it is generally considered safe.


Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in anyway. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

Name Logo

Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

Sales: sales@theherbarius.com.au

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“Sadly pain is long remembered, but a sweet is soon forgotten, plus, it rots your teeth”

Herbal Panda

Long before there was the improved technology in distillation processes whereby they make high-proof alcohols, man made his extracts from water (teas and decoctions), vinegar and wines. Not only that, we used it for disinfecting, deodorising and using it as a preservative. Have you ever seen a bottle of vinegar go off, probably not.

A Bible verse used as an excuse to drink alcohol found in 1 Timothy 5:23 “Drink no longer water, but use a little wine for thy stomach’s sake and thine often infirmities.” is really the Apostle Paul telling Timothy, “Take your medicine”. It was health advice! And it was a wine extraction in this case. Humans have for many thousands of years made herbal extractions.

Anyway, a liquid used in the process of drawing or extracting the goodies out of the herb is called a ‘Menstruum’, and here, it is vinegar. Vinegar is an acid, usually up to 5% or a little higher, and therefore has the ability to bite in and extract elements out of the herb. But it is not the best form of extraction, and does benefit with extras such as, a grain alcohol.

Next time you use a vinaigrette, especially when made from fresh herbs, you are basically using a type of culinary Vinegar extract, but not exactly as described here.

Reasons why to make a Vinegar Extract

Vinegar is relative cheap and easy to obtain for most people and often it is already in their cupboard, ready to be used on their fish and chips, therefore, it is an easy and cheap solution.

Vinegar acts both as a solvent, that is a menstruum, and a preservative and therefore, can be used entirely on its own. This is helpful to some who cannot take alcohol, such as young children, those with liver disease, alcohol sensitivities and strict religious reasons.

Since apple cider vinegar is excellent for the stomach and digestive tract, you could design an apple cider vinegar extract, which is excellent for digestion and the GI tract, with herbs that work synergistically to improve absorption, digestion of foods and assimilation of nutrients. Or you can add mucilaginous/emollient herbs to make things gentle on the stomach.

Alkaloids found in many herbs, when mixed with an acid, the alkaloid turns chemically into a type of alkaloid salt. This means they become more bioavailable.

Many of the vinegar extractions if made of the ‘right’ herbs, that is, aromatic and tasteful, can be applied to salads and other meals and therefore providing medicinal benefits as well as great flavour.

How to do a Vinegar Extract

My preferred type of vinegar is Apple Cider Vinegar (ACV), organic and unfiltered, as they say, with the ‘mother in’ as well, and I personally use it everyday, as it already has many natural benefits. Without even doing any extraction.

The only downside I have heard of ACV, is that it is so already full of ‘extras’ that it finds it hard to absorb any more, but it does still work.

There are plenty of vinegars you can use, such as, malt, rice, wine, cane and a less known one, raisin vinegar? Either way, try to make sure your menstruum is as organic, and natural as possible.

I wouldn’t use white vinegar unless you know exactly ‘what’ is was made from, as it can made from natural fermentation processes or from coal tar, petroleum products and in the laboratory then diluted, which could or would be poisonous. And another reason I would avoid white vinegars, is because they are basically nutrition less.

Vinegar extraction can use both dry and fresh herbs, but if you going to make a vinegar extract, you are on the whole, much better off using dry herbs, as fresh herb extractions are not as strong. This is partly because dried herbs are ‘semi’ broken due to the drying process, a bit like dried soil with its cracks, and if you reduce them to a more powdered form, then you have greater surface area for the vinegar to extract from.

One of the reasons for not using fresh herbs is that during the extraction process, a lot of juices flow out into the vinegar and prevent the more but slower constituents from coming out.

Sage Vinegar Extract

This one is good for weak constitutions and low metabolism

  • Fill a 500ml / 1 pint glass jar with crushed sage leaves almost to the top
  • Add and cover with your preferred vinegar and place a lid on it
  • Allow to sit, that is – macerate for 2 weeks
  • Shake each day
  • Strain and rebottle and label and date

Take it three times per day, by adding 20 to 40 drops in some water.

This exact same process above can be used for other herbs such as, Horseradish, Gentian, Wormwood (although this would very bitter), and Burnet. A balm to help in removing chickenpox crusts is a Burdock root vinegar. A Chamomile vinegar extract can be drunk as a health tonic.

A few culinary choices

Made to the same processes above, you could make some salad dressings out of either Basil, Nettle, Thyme, Fennel, Rosemary or Garlic.

Variations of Vinegar Extracts

Although you can use straight vinegar as a menstruum and that’s what this post is mostly about, you can add as a variation, additional grain alcohol or similar, as this will increase the extraction efficacy and shelf life.

A mixture of vinegar and alcohol is called an acetous mixture, a straight vinegar extract is called an acetum and plural – aceta.

As mentioned above, you can choose a range of vinegars and alcohols, but the alcohol does need to be very high proof.

Vinegar extracts on there own don’t seem to have a long shelf life, so you can either make an acetous mixture, vinegar/alcohol or add the alcohol later as a preservative, which sort of defeats the purpose of not adding the alcohol in the first place, or trying to avoid it.

Oxymel

An interesting variation, well sort of, is an Oxymel, ‘Oxy’ meaning acid, and ‘Mel’ meaning Honey.

This remedy is principally used as a means to hide the taste of bitter herbs, or reduce the ‘heat’ of some. It is simply made by placing the chosen herbs, and 5 parts honey and 1 part vinegar into a saucepan and simmering it down until it is the consistency of Treacle. Then bottle and label name with a date.

The dosage is whatever the prescribed use of the herb is.

Choice of Herbs for a Vinegar Extract

When it comes to choosing a herb or herbs for a vinegar extract, really you can use any herb, but as a guidance, I would suggest:

  • Only use dry herbs for real efficacy
  • If they are raw, and whole, grind them into smaller particles
  • Vinegar extracts are usually done at a ratio of 1:7
  • Vinegar/alcohol extracts are done at a ratio of 1:5 due the stronger combination
  • Some low-dosage herbs need to done at a ratio of 1:10

Low dosage herbs are ones that are very potent and should be used sparingly.

Safety

Always be careful of any possible allergic reaction to any herb, even though most are safe.

Though not really a safety issue, taking apple cider vinegar or most vinegars frankly, can be quite strong, I mean, if you take it straight, it feels like its stripping the lining off your oesophagus. I know, I do take small sips straight often.

So you can either dilute it a bit with water, which may dilute the original mixture, or add a little raw honey. But don’t use honey when consuming bitter herbs as this defeats their use.



Please remember, this blog cannot and should not replace a health care professional, and is for informational and educational purposes only and is not for medical advice or treatment, and no cure is implied in anyway. If you have a known serious condition, or are pregnant, please consult your health care professional, before use.

Kind Regards,

Russell a.k.a Herbal Panda

Website: http://www.theherbarius.com.au

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Email: theherbalist@theherbarius.com.au

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“Just remember, we have tastes for salt, sour and bitter, just as much as sweet and savoury”

Herbal Panda